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Gene Review

Eno2  -  enolase 2, gamma, neuronal

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase, Eno-2, Enolase 2, Gamma-enolase, NSE, ...
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Disease relevance of Eno2


Psychiatry related information on Eno2


High impact information on Eno2


Chemical compound and disease context of Eno2


Biological context of Eno2


Anatomical context of Eno2

  • During development, both signals coincidentally increased in Purkinje cells and neurons of the dentate nucleus, while only NSE signals showed a gradual increase in the internal granule cells in which NNE signals remained at the same level from early postnatal to adult stages [20].
  • Neuron-specific enolase is not only a specific molecular marker for mature nerve cells, but is closely correlated to the differentiated state [21].
  • In addition, study of neurons in cerebellum and neocortex reveals that they are NNE(+) during migration and only become NSE(+) in their final location, presumably after making full synaptic connections [21].
  • On examination of the adult rat cerebellum, both NSE and NNE signals were detected in all identified and presumed neurons which included Purkinje cells, internal granule cells and presumed stellate/basket cells in the cerebellar cortex and neurons of the dentate nucleus [20].
  • Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and non-neuronal enolase (NNE) which exists in many tissues including liver but is localized in glial cells within the nervous system, were synthesized in the rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation system programmed with brain mRNAs [22].

Associations of Eno2 with chemical compounds

  • Following in vivo destruction of neurons by intracerebral injection of the selective neurotoxin, kainic acid, there was a significant decrease in the activity of NSE and hybrid enolase (neuronal forms) and no change in the activity of NNE (glial form) [23].
  • A dose-response relationship was observed between kainate concentration and the amount of NSE released (r = -0.69; p < 0.05) as well as a significant correlation between NSE release and neuronal death (r = 0.64; p < 0.05) [24].
  • Identification of neuron-specific enolase and nonneuronal enolase in human and rat brain on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels [25].
  • Neuron-specific enolase and creatine phosphokinase were found, by 2-dimensional gel analysis, in rat brain synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) [26].
  • On the other hand, levels of NSE subunit (gamma subunit or 14-3-2 protein) in adipose tissue (0.51 +/- 0.03 gamma gamma-equivalent pmol/mg protein) were increased to 170% of control by serial injection (for 7 days) of epinephrine or norepinephrine with little change of the level of enolase alpha subunit on a mg protein basis [27].

Other interactions of Eno2

  • The size of NNE mRNA was approximately 1800 bases by Northern transfer analysis and much shorter than that of NSE mRNA (2400 bases) indicating a short 3'-noncoding region [15].
  • These were followed by evaluation of the cortical lesion volume (CLV) after immunostaining for neuron-specific enolase, caspase 3 active, and GFAP [28].
  • The ratio between gamma gamma-enolase and alpha gamma-enolase may be indicative of the degree of neuronal maturation, a conclusion further substantiated by the high ratio observed in cerebellum and the low ratio observed in olfactory bulbs, both compared with the ratio in forebrain [29].
  • Thus GAP-43 and NSE should be used with caution as neuron-specific markers in studies of normal and pathological neural development [30].
  • PRAX-1 mRNA expression was largely neuronal; it colocalized with neuron-specific enolase but not glial fibrillary acidic protein [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Eno2


  1. Regulation of neuron-specific enolase in NG108-15 hybrid cells and C6BU-1 glioma cells. Kato, K., Higashida, H., Umeda, Y., Suzuki, F., Tanaka, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Nonspecific increase of systemic neuron-specific enolase after trauma: clinical and experimental findings. Pelinka, L.E., Hertz, H., Mauritz, W., Harada, N., Jafarmadar, M., Albrecht, M., Redl, H., Bahrami, S. Shock (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased nervous system-specific enolases in rat plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in bilirubin encephalopathy detected by an enzyme immunoassay. Semba, R., Kato, K. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Repeated electroconvulsive shock selectively increases the expression of the neuron specific enolase in piriform cortex. Rasmussen, C.V., Kragh, J., Bolwig, T.G., Jørgensen, O.S. Neurochem. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Brain endolases as specific markers of neuronal and glial cells. Schmechel, D., Marangos, P.J., Zis, A.P., Brightman, M., Goodwin, F.K. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuron specific enolase: a common marker for the endocrine cells and innervation of the gut and pancreas. Bishop, A.E., Polak, J.M., Facer, P., Ferri, G.L., Marangos, P.J., Pearse, A.G. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell cultures of neuroblasts from rat olfactory epithelium that show odorant responses. Coon, H.G., Curcio, F., Sakaguchi, K., Brandi, M.L., Swerdlow, R.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves. Stead, R.H., Tomioka, M., Quinonez, G., Simon, G.T., Felten, S.Y., Bienenstock, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Fibroblast growth factor promotes survival of dissociated hippocampal neurons and enhances neurite extension. Walicke, P., Cowan, W.M., Ueno, N., Baird, A., Guillemin, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunoradiometric and immunohistochemical demonstration of neuron-specific enolase in experimental rat gliomas. Vinores, S.A., Marangos, P.J., Bonnin, J.M., Rubinstein, L.J. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of glutamate neurotoxicity on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures by the presence of striatal target cells. Mateu, G., Privat, A., Thibault, J., Vignon, J. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Attenuation of brain injury and reduction of neuron-specific enolase by nicardipine in systemic circulation following focal ischemia and reperfusion in a rat model. Kittaka, M., Giannotta, S.L., Zelman, V., Correale, J.D., DeGiorgio, C.M., Weiss, M.H., Zlokovic, B.V. J. Neurosurg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Neuron-specific enolase as a marker of in vitro neuronal damage. Part II: Investigation of the astrocyte protective effect against kainate-induced neurotoxicity. Bonhomme, V., Hans, P., Collette, J., Moonen, G. Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Intrinsic innervation of the oesophagus in fetal rats with oesophageal atresia. Qi, B.Q., Uemura, S., Farmer, P., Myers, N.A., Hutson, J.M. Pediatr. Surg. Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning and the nucleotide sequence of cDNA to mRNA for non-neuronal enolase (alpha alpha enolase) of rat brain and liver. Sakimura, K., Kushiya, E., Obinata, M., Takahashi, Y. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of the neuron-specific enolase gene by rat oligodendroglial cells during their differentiation. Deloulme, J.C., Lucas, M., Gaber, C., Bouillon, P., Keller, A., Eclancher, F., Sensenbrenner, M. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Neuron-specific enolase: complete structure of rat mRNA, multiple transcriptional start sites, and evidence suggesting post-transcriptional control. Forss-Petter, S., Danielson, P., Sutcliffe, J.G. J. Neurosci. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular cloning and the nucleotide sequence of cDNA for neuron-specific enolase messenger RNA of rat brain. Sakimura, K., Kushiya, E., Obinata, M., Odani, S., Takahashi, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. The structure and expression of neuron-specific enolase gene. Sakimura, K., Kushiya, E., Takahashi, Y., Suzuki, Y. Gene (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and non-neuronal enolase (NNE) mRNAs are co-expressed in neurons of the rat cerebellum: in situ hybridization histochemistry. Katagiri, T., Feng, X., Ichikawa, T., Usui, H., Takahashi, Y., Kumanishi, T. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Neurons switch from non-neuronal enolase to neuron-specific enolase during differentiation. Schmechel, D.E., Brightman, M.W., Marangos, P.J. Brain Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Changes in levels of translatable mRNA for neuron-specific enolase and non-neuronal enolase during development of rat brain and liver. Yoshida, Y., Sakimura, K., Masuda, T., Kushiya, E., Takahashi, Y. J. Biochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Activity of neuron-specific enolase in normal and lesioned rat brain. Francis, A., Rivett, A.J., Roth, J.A. Brain Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Neuron-specific enolase as a marker of in vitro neuronal damage. Part I: Assessment of neuron-specific enolase as a quantitative and specific marker of neuronal damage. Hans, P., Bonhomme, V., Collette, J., Moonen, G. Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of neuron-specific enolase and nonneuronal enolase in human and rat brain on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Heydorn, W.E., Creed, G.J., Marangos, P.J., Jacobowitz, D.M. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Neurone-specific enolase and creatine phosphokinase are protein components of rat brain synaptic plasma membranes. Lim, L., Hall, C., Leung, T., Mahadevan, L., Whatley, S. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation of nervous system-specific S-100 protein and enolase levels in adipose tissue by catecholamines. Suzuki, F., Kato, K., Nakajima, T. J. Neurochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Late effects of enriched environment (EE) plus multimodal early onset stimulation (MEOS) after traumatic brain injury in rats: Ongoing improvement of neuromotor function despite sustained volume of the CNS lesion. Lippert-Gruener, M., Maegele, M., Garbe, J., Angelov, D.N. Exp. Neurol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Alpha gamma-enolase in the rat: ontogeny and tissue distribution. Jørgensen, O.S., Centervall, G. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of two neuronal markers, growth-associated protein 43 and neuron-specific enolase, in rat glial cells. Sensenbrenner, M., Lucas, M., Deloulme, J.C. J. Mol. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression profile and up-regulation of PRAX-1 mRNA by antidepressant treatment in the rat brain. Chardenot, P., Roubert, C., Galiègue, S., Casellas, P., Le Fur, G., Soubrié, P., Oury-Donat, F. Mol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Neuron-specific enolase levels in primary cultures of neurons. Schengrund, C.L., Marangos, P.J. J. Neurosci. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  33. Neuron-specific enolase reflects metabolic activity in mesencephalic neurons of the rat. Silverman, W.F. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
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