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Gene Review

ENO2  -  enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase, Enolase 2, Gamma-enolase, HEL-S-279, NSE, ...
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Disease relevance of ENO2


Psychiatry related information on ENO2


High impact information on ENO2


Chemical compound and disease context of ENO2


Biological context of ENO2

  • Cytogenetic analysis has allowed assignment of ENO2 to the short arm of chromosome 12, in the region of pter-p1205 [20].
  • The gene coding for ENO2 was previously assigned to human chromosome 12 [20].
  • The haemolysate of an individual with the heterozygous ENO1/ENO2 genotype had a triple banded pattern replacing band I, a double-banded pattern replacing band II and a single weakly staining band III [21].
  • Our data indicate that in proliferating tachyzoites, the repression of ENO1 involves a negative distal regulatory region (nucleotides -1245 to -625) in the promoter whereas a proximal regulatory region in the ENO2 promoter directs expression at a low level [22].
  • The differential activation of the ENO1 and ENO2 promoters during tachyzoite to bradyzoite differentiation was investigated by deletion analysis of 5'-flanking regions fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter followed by transient transfection [22].

Anatomical context of ENO2


Associations of ENO2 with chemical compounds

  • In experimental conditions with RA and DMSO/BHA, hMSCs were NeuN and NSE-positive while in NPMM they were positive for GFAP and NSE [26].
  • The fine structural localization of NSE in neoplastic cells suggests that the conversion of 2-D-glycerophosphate to phosphoenolpyruvate by enolase may occur on the membrane and, in the case of astrocytic tumours, on the cytoplasmic filaments as well as in the cytoplasm [27].
  • After treatment of the cultured cells with nerve growth factor or dibutyryl-cAMP some cells showed morphological differentiation and concomitantly an increase in the NSE levels [28].
  • One group reacted specifically with NSE but not with its isoenzyme NNE, irrespective of whether antigens were glutaraldehyde fixed or unfixed [29].
  • alpha- and gamma-enolase isoenzyme substance concentrations were measured in serum and plasma from healthy subjects and from 174 patients with different solid tumours [30].

Regulatory relationships of ENO2


Other interactions of ENO2

  • A specific radioimmunoassay is described for NNE and NSE with the studies reported indicating that neuronal enzyme levels vary considerably when different brain areas are compared, suggesting a relationship between functional activity and levels of NSE [23].
  • These include cDNAs encoding the NE markers secretogranin (SCG2), CD24, and ENO2 [34].
  • Before treatment, a serum sample from a patient with rhabdomyosarcoma contained a high level of beta enolase and serum samples from patients with (ganglio)neuroblastoma contained high levels of gamma enolase [35].
  • Identification of the origin of a 22p+ chromosome by triplex dosage effect of LDH B, GAPHD, TPI and ENO2 [36].
  • Detection of neuron-specific gamma-enolase messenger ribonucleic acid in normal human leukocytes by polymerase chain reaction amplification with nested primers [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ENO2


  1. Enolase isoenzyme distribution in the human brain and its tumours. Royds, J.A., Parsons, M.A., Taylor, C.B., Timperley, W.R. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression, purification and the 1.8 angstroms resolution crystal structure of human neuron specific enolase. Chai, G., Brewer, J.M., Lovelace, L.L., Aoki, T., Minor, W., Lebioda, L. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuron-specific enolase. Assessment by ELISA in patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Anastasiades, K.D., Mullins, R.E., Conn, R.B. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Detection of neuron-specific gamma-enolase messenger ribonucleic acid in normal human leukocytes by polymerase chain reaction amplification with nested primers. Pechumer, H., Bender-Götze, C., Ziegler-Heitbrock, H.W. Lab. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Evaluation of gamma-enolase as a tumor marker for renal cell carcinoma. Takashi, M., Haimoto, H., Tanaka, J., Murase, T., Kato, K. J. Urol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Brain levels of neuron-specific and nonneuronal enolase in Huntington's disease. Marangos, P.J., Paul, S.M. J. Neurochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Blood cell superoxide dismutase and enolase activities as markers of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. Ledig, M., Doffoel, M., Doffoel, S., Kopp, P., Bockel, R., Mandel, P. Alcohol (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Cerebrospinal fluid neuron-specific enolase is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. Cutler, N.R., Kay, A.D., Marangos, P.J., Burg, C. Arch. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Investigation on serum neurone-specific enolase in prostate cancer diagnosis and monitoring: comparative study of a multiple tumor marker assay. Tarle, M., Radoś, N. Prostate (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of cerebrospinal fluid. Zerr, I., Bodemer, M., Otto, M., Poser, S., Windl, O., Kretzschmar, H.A., Gefeller, O., Weber, T. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Eriksson, P.S., Perfilieva, E., Björk-Eriksson, T., Alborn, A.M., Nordborg, C., Peterson, D.A., Gage, F.H. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Retinoblastoma--origin from a primitive neuroectodermal cell? Kyritsis, A.P., Tsokos, M., Triche, T.J., Chader, G.J. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Chromogranin A in children with neuroblastoma. Serum concentration parallels disease stage and predicts survival. Hsiao, R.J., Seeger, R.C., Yu, A.L., O'Connor, D.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential expression of neural isozymes by human medulloblastomas and gliomas and neuroectodermal cell lines. Zeltzer, P.M., Schneider, S.L., Marangos, P.J., Zweig, M.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of gamma-subunit of enolase, neuron-specific enolase, in human non-neuroendocrine tumors and derived cell lines. Påhlman, S., Esscher, T., Nilsson, K. Lab. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Neuron-specific enolase, nucleotides, nucleosides, purine bases, oxypurines and uric acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. Rodríguez-Núñez, A., Cid, E., Rodríguez-García, J., Camiña, F., Rodríguez-Segade, S., Castro-Gago, M. Brain Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Metastatic adrenal neuroblastoma in an adult. Franke, A., Jentsch-Ullrich, K., Schalk, E., Mohren, M., Koenigsmann, M., Buhtz, P. Onkologie. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Determination of urine neuron-specific enolase levels in neuroblastoma patients. Gotoh, Y., Hashimoto, K., Inoue, S., Suzuki, J., Tada, K. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Monocytoid differentiation of freshly isolated human myeloid leukemia cells and HL-60 cells induced by the glutamine antagonist acivicin. Nichols, K.E., Chitneni, S.R., Moore, J.O., Weinberg, J.B. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Regional mapping of the gene coding for enolase-2 on human chromosome 12. Law, M.L., Kao, F.T. J. Cell. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Enolase: human tissue distribution and evidence for three different loci. Chen, S.H., Giblett, E.R. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Transcriptional regulation of two stage-specifically expressed genes in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Kibe, M.K., Coppin, A., Dendouga, N., Oria, G., Meurice, E., Mortuaire, M., Madec, E., Tomavo, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. The existence and neurobiological significance of neuronal and glial forms of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. Marangos, P.J., Schmechel, D., Zis, A.P., Goodwin, F.K. Biol. Psychiatry (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Distinction of two different classes of small-cell lung cancer cell lines by enzymatically inactive neuron-specific enolase. Splinter, T.A., Verkoelen, C.F., Vlastuin, M., Kok, T.C., Rijksen, G., Haglid, K.G., Boomsma, F., van de Gaast, A. Br. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. In situ distribution of enolase isozymes in chronic liver disease. Fukuda, Y., Miyazawa, Y., Imoto, M., Koyama, Y., Nakano, I., Nagura, H., Kato, K. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Neural differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells: evidence for expression of neural markers and eag K(+) channel types. Mareschi, K., Novara, M., Rustichelli, D., Ferrero, I., Guido, D., Carbone, E., Medico, E., Madon, E., Vercelli, A., Fagioli, F. Exp. Hematol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Electron-immunocytochemical localization of neuron-specific enolase in cytoplasm and on membranes of primary and metastatic cerebral tumours and on glial filaments of glioma cells. Vinores, S.A., Herman, M.M., Rubinstein, L.J. Histopathology (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Neuron-specific enolase in relation to differentiation in human neuroblastoma. Odelstad, L., Påhlman, S., Nilsson, K., Larsson, E., Läckgren, G., Johansson, K.E., Hjertén, S., Grotte, G. Brain Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to human neuron-specific enolase. Seshi, B., Bell, C.E. Hybridoma (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Enolase isoenzymes as tumour markers. Gerbitz, K.D., Summer, J., Schumacher, I., Arnold, H., Kraft, A., Mross, K. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. IL-6 induces neuroendocrine dedifferentiation and cell proliferation in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Chang, K.T., Tsai, C.M., Chiou, Y.C., Chiu, C.H., Jeng, K.S., Huang, C.Y. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. 45-year-old male with symptomatic mass in the frontal lobe. Mueller, W., Lass, U., Veelken, J., Reuter, F., von Deimling, A. Brain Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Excitotoxicity. Experimental correlates to human epilepsy. Haglid, K.G., Wang, S., Qiner, Y., Hamberger, A. Mol. Neurobiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular characterization of prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Clegg, N., Ferguson, C., True, L.D., Arnold, H., Moorman, A., Quinn, J.E., Vessella, R.L., Nelson, P.S. Prostate (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Enolase isozymes as markers for differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Wilms' tumor. Ishiguro, Y., Kato, K., Ito, T., Horisawa, M., Nagaya, M. Gann = Gan. (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Identification of the origin of a 22p+ chromosome by triplex dosage effect of LDH B, GAPHD, TPI and ENO2. Dallapiccola, B., Brinchi, V., Magnani, M., Dacha, M. Ann. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  37. Enhanced expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL). Nakatsuka, S., Nishiu, M., Tomita, Y., Miwa, H., Takakuwa, T., Iuchi, K., Yamamoto, S., Aozasa, K. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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