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Gene Review

HMGB2  -  high mobility group box 2

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on HMG2

  • Monoclonal antibodies specific for the non-histone chromosomal protein HMG17 were used to isolate oligonucleosomes from the transcriptionally active chromatin of chicken liver and oviduct [1].
  • Most of this sensitivity persists when histone H1 and most of the non-histone chromosomal proteins are removed with 0.6 M NaCl [2].
  • HMG-14 and HMG-17 form a family of ubiquitous non-histone chromosomal proteins and have been reported to bind preferentially to regions of active chromatin structure [3].
  • HMG2b is the major HMG2 subtype in testis and reaches the highest proportion, detected so far, in spermatid cells obtained by centrifugal elutriation [4].
  • In conclusion, the pattern of HMG2 composition is different in three quiescent and terminally differentiated cell types, no correlation between the state of cell proliferation and HMG2 composition can be established [4].

Biological context of HMG2

  • The ratios HMG1/nucleosomal histone and HMG2/nucleosomal histone increased markedly at the end of spermiogenesis during the transition from nucleohistone to nucleoprotamine when nucleosomes are being disassembled [5].
  • The stimulation, by a change of medium, of the proliferation of dense cultures of normal chick fibroblasts also induced an increase in the kinase activity and endogenous phosphorylation of NHC proteins [6].
  • Low molar ratios of HMG 2 were found to be sufficient for complete inhibition of S1 cleavage of a supercoiled plasmid containing the globin gene [7].

Anatomical context of HMG2


Associations of HMG2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of HMG2


  1. Chromatin from transcribed genes contains HMG17 only downstream from the starting point of transcription. Dorbic, T., Wittig, B. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Multiple structural features are responsible for the nuclease sensitivity of the active ovalbumin gene. Senear, A.W., Palmiter, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Neither HMG-14a nor HMG-17 gene function is required for growth of chicken DT40 cells or maintenance of DNaseI-hypersensitive sites. Li, Y., Strahler, J.R., Dodgson, J.B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of HMG2 complement changes in chicken tissues. Boix, J. Exp. Cell Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Quantitative changes of high mobility group non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 during rooster spermatogenesis. Chiva, M., Mezquita, C. FEBS Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Rous sarcoma virus-induced changes in the pattern of phosphorylation of non-histone nuclear proteins. Blat, C., Harel, L., Villaudy, J., Golde, A. Exp. Cell Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Supercoil-dependent recognition of specific DNA sites by chromosomal protein HMG 2. Butler, A.P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Tissue-specific pattern of nonhistone high mobility group proteins in various organs of the chicken. Pedrini, M., Grunicke, H., Csordas, A. Electrophoresis (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. The primary structure of non-histone chromosomal protein HMG17 from chicken erythrocyte nuclei. Walker, J.M., Stearn, C., Johns, E.W. FEBS Lett. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleotide sequence of small chromatin-associated RNA (fr3 RNA). Brajanović-Urosević, N., Naora, H., Mills, G.C., Holoubek, V. Eur. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Interaction of non-histone proteins HMG1 and HMG2 with core histones in nucleosomes and core particles revealed by chemical cross-linking. Stros, M., Kolíbalová, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Thermal denaturation and fluorescence study of nucleosomes containing non-histone chromosomal protein HMG2. Stros, M., Kleinwächter, V. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Quantitative analysis of non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG 14 and HMG 17 by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mathew, C.G., Goodwin, G.H., Johns, E.W. J. Chromatogr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Fractionation of chick oviduct chromatin. Nuclease-resistant deoxyribonucleic acid. Krall, J.F., Socher, S.H., Van, N.T., O'Malley, B.W. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Binding of non-histone chromosomal protein HMG1 to histone H3 in nucleosomes detected by photochemical cross-linking. Stros, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) [Pubmed]
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