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Gene Review

Hmgb2  -  high mobility group box 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: C80539, HMG-2, High mobility group protein 2, High mobility group protein B2, Hmg2
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Disease relevance of Hmgb2


High impact information on Hmgb2

  • A chimeric protein, in which the strong transactivation domain of VP16 was fused directly to the HMG domains of HMG2, stimulated the activity of an octamer-dependent reporter construct upon cotransfection [3].
  • Comparative studies on microinjected high-mobility-group chromosomal proteins, HMG1 and HMG2 [4].
  • However, in calf thymus, HMG1 and HMG2 molecules appeared in the 0.35 M NaCl extract of isolated nuclei, as expected [4].
  • Both injected and endogenous HMG1 and HMG2 partitioned unexpectedly upon fractionation of bovine fibroblasts, HeLa, or 3T3 cells, appearing in the cytoplasmic fractions [4].
  • We show that in adult mice Hmgb2 is restricted mainly to lymphoid organs and testes, although it is widely expressed during embryogenesis [5].

Biological context of Hmgb2

  • Reduced fertility and spermatogenesis defects in mice lacking chromosomal protein Hmgb2 [5].
  • This peculiar pattern of expression and the phenotype of mutants indicate that Hmgb2 has a specialised role in germ cell differentiation [5].
  • Nucleotide sequence of a mouse cDNA encoding the non-histone chromosomal high mobility group protein-2 (HMG-2) [6].
  • The expression of reporter genes transfected into the cells was enhanced approximately 2-fold in cells overexpressing HMG1, but not HMG2, in comparison with those in control cells, irrespective of the sources of the genes and promoters [7].
  • The minichromosome derived from the reporter plasmid in cells overexpressing HMG1 protein was more susceptible to micrococcal nuclease digestion than those in cells overexpressing HMG2 protein and control cells [7].

Anatomical context of Hmgb2

  • Significantly, Hmgb2 is expressed at very high levels in primary spermatocytes, while it is barely detectable in spermatogonia and elongated spermatids [5].
  • Limited digestion of fetal calf thymus nuclei with DNase I led to the solubilization of a substantial fraction of proteins HMG-1 and HMG-2 together with smaller amounts of H1 [8].
  • In addition, HMG1 and HMG2 did not differ in their partitioning upon fractionation nor in their stability in growing vs. nongrowing 3T3 cells [4].
  • High mobility group 2 (HMG2) protein is ubiquitously distributed in the nucleus of higher eukaryotic cells [9].
  • Accumulation of an HMG2-beta-galactosidase fusion protein expressed in COS-7 cells suggested active transport of HMG2 protein into the nucleus after translation in the cytoplasm [9].

Associations of Hmgb2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Hmgb2

  • CLEBP-1 and closely related HMG-1 and HMG-2 proteins may play key roles in facilitating the expression of the lymphokine genes that contain CLE0 elements [13].
  • The relative amounts of two other low-Mr HMG proteins HMG 14 and HMG 17 remained essentially unchanged and only a minor decrease was observed in the content of one of the high-Mr HMG proteins, HMG 2 [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hmgb2


  1. Loss of chromosomal high mobility group proteins HMG1 and HMG2 when mouse neuroblastoma and Friend erythroleukemia cells become committed to differentiation. Seyedin, S.M., Pehrson, J.R., Cole, R.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Conservation of chromosomal high mobility group proteins HMG1 and HMG2 during differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemia cells. Iketani, K., Sakagami, H., Nakaya, K., Konno, K. Gann = Gan. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. High mobility group protein 2 functionally interacts with the POU domains of octamer transcription factors. Zwilling, S., König, H., Wirth, T. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparative studies on microinjected high-mobility-group chromosomal proteins, HMG1 and HMG2. Wu, L., Rechsteiner, M., Kuehl, L. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduced fertility and spermatogenesis defects in mice lacking chromosomal protein Hmgb2. Ronfani, L., Ferraguti, M., Croci, L., Ovitt, C.E., Schöler, H.R., Consalez, G.G., Bianchi, M.E. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide sequence of a mouse cDNA encoding the non-histone chromosomal high mobility group protein-2 (HMG-2). Stolzenburg, F., Dinkl, E., Grummt, F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Stimulation of transcription accompanying relaxation of chromatin structure in cells overexpressing high mobility group 1 protein. Ogawa, Y., Aizawa, S., Shirakawa, H., Yoshida, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. A study of the localization of high mobility group proteins in chromatin. Levy, W.B., Dixon, G.H. Can. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Nuclear accumulation of HMG2 protein is mediated by basic regions interspaced with a long DNA-binding sequence, and retention within the nucleus requires the acidic carboxyl terminus. Shirakawa, H., Tanigawa, T., Sugiyama, S., Kobayashi, M., Terashima, T., Yoshida, K., Arai, T., Yoshida, M. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Chromatin fractionation procedure that yields nucleosomes containing near-stoichiometric amounts of high mobility group nonhistone chromosomal proteins. Jackson, J.B., Pollock, J.M., Rill, R.L. Biochemistry (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Heterogeneity of high-mobility-group protein 2. Enrichment of a rapidly migrating form in testis. Bucci, L.R., Brock, W.A., Meistrich, M.L. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Global gene profiling analysis of mouse uterus during the oestrous cycle. Tan, Y.F., Li, F.X., Piao, Y.S., Sun, X.Y., Wang, Y.L. Reproduction (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The conserved lymphokine element-0 in the IL5 promoter binds to a high mobility group-1 protein. Marrugo, J., Marsh, D.G., Ghosh, B. Mol. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Selective decrease in low-Mr HMG proteins HMG I and HMG Y during differentiation of mouse teratocarcinoma cells. Vartiainen, E., Palvimo, J., Mahonen, A., Linnala-Kankkunen, A., Mäenpää, P.H. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Circular dichroism, thermal denaturation, and deoxyribonuclease I digestion studies of nucleosomes highly enriched in high mobility group proteins HMG 1 and HMG 2. Jackson, J.B., Rill, R.L. Biochemistry (1981) [Pubmed]
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