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Gene Review

apc  -  adenomatous polyposis coli

Xenopus laevis

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Disease relevance of apc

  • Moreover, the specific APC mutations associated in colon cancer indicate the possibility that the tumor selects for certain truncated forms of APC that partially retain its function, namely, inhibition of beta-catenin [1].

High impact information on apc

  • Since activation of separase by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is supposedly not required for meiosis I in Xenopus oocytes, it has been suggested that animal cells might resolve chiasmata by a separase-independent mechanism related to the so-called "prophase pathway" that removes cohesin from chromosome arms during mitosis [2].
  • Here we identify XErp1, a novel Plx1-regulated inhibitor of APC/C activity, and we demonstrate that XErp1 is required to prevent anaphase onset in CSF-arrested Xenopus egg extract [3].
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a highly regulated ubiquitin-ligase that triggers anaphase onset and mitotic exit by targeting securin and mitotic cyclins for destruction [3].
  • These results suggest that dephosphorylation of serine 53 during mitotic exit could control the timing of Aur-A destruction, allowing recognition of both the A box and D box by Cdh1-activated APC/C [4].
  • Destruction boxes mark cyclin B and other proteins degraded in mitosis for ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) [5].

Biological context of apc


Anatomical context of apc

  • These data indicate that the APC protein plays a role in the formation of spindles that is dependent on its effect on microtubules [6].
  • These data suggest that APC is important for centrosomally driven spindle formation, which was confirmed by our finding that APC depletion reduced the size of asters nucleated from isolated centrosomes [6].
  • CSF is thought to suppress cyclin B degradation through the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdc20 while cyclin B synthesis continues in unfertilized eggs [8].

Associations of apc with chemical compounds

  • Fertilization triggers a transient increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+), which leads to CSF inactivation and ubiquitin-dependent cyclin destruction through the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) [9].

Other interactions of apc

  • We provide evidence that APC mutations are selected not based on the maximal level of beta-catenin but rather based on distinct state of activity that appears to be optimal for the tissue-specific tumorigenesis [1].
  • The ubiquitin-dependent beta-catenin degradation in extracts displays a biochemical requirement for axin, GSK3, and APC [7].
  • However, plakoglobin may have other activities: it is expressed in both desmosomal junctions in association with desmogleins and the cytoplasm in conjunction with APC, and previous work suggests it may act in a dorsal signalling pathway when overexpressed in Xenopus embryos [10].


  1. Wnt pathway mutations selected by optimal beta-catenin signaling for tumorigenesis. Cho, K.H., Baek, S., Sung, M.H. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Resolution of chiasmata in oocytes requires separase-mediated proteolysis. Kudo, N.R., Wassmann, K., Anger, M., Schuh, M., Wirth, K.G., Xu, H., Helmhart, W., Kudo, H., McKay, M., Maro, B., Ellenberg, J., de Boer, P., Nasmyth, K. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Xenopus polo-like kinase Plx1 regulates XErp1, a novel inhibitor of APC/C activity. Schmidt, A., Duncan, P.I., Rauh, N.R., Sauer, G., Fry, A.M., Nigg, E.A., Mayer, T.U. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of a new APC/C recognition domain, the A box, which is required for the Cdh1-dependent destruction of the kinase Aurora-A during mitotic exit. Littlepage, L.E., Ruderman, J.V. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Destruction with a box: substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex. Zachariae, W. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. The adenomatous polyposis coli protein is required for the formation of robust spindles formed in CSF Xenopus extracts. Dikovskaya, D., Newton, I.P., Näthke, I.S. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Control of beta-catenin stability: reconstitution of the cytoplasmic steps of the wnt pathway in Xenopus egg extracts. Salic, A., Lee, E., Mayer, L., Kirschner, M.W. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. APC/C-Cdc20-mediated degradation of cyclin B participates in CSF arrest in unfertilized Xenopus eggs. Yamamoto, T.M., Iwabuchi, M., Ohsumi, K., Kishimoto, T. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. CaMKII and polo-like kinase 1 sequentially phosphorylate the cytostatic factor Emi2/XErp1 to trigger its destruction and meiotic exit. Hansen, D.V., Tung, J.J., Jackson, P.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The roles of maternal alpha-catenin and plakoglobin in the early Xenopus embryo. Kofron, M., Spagnuolo, A., Klymkowsky, M., Wylie, C., Heasman, J. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
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