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Gene Review

AFP  -  alpha-fetoprotein

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of LOC422652

  • Application of the proposed method is shown for alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) and endogenous provirus (ev-3) RNA detection in rat and chicken embryos, respectively [1].
  • Morphologically well-differentiated neurons (ganglion cells) appeared positively labeled for AFP, contrasting with weakly stained other cell types: these included spindle-shaped cells identified as Schwann cells and larger, often closely packed cells, which could be less mature neurons [2].

High impact information on LOC422652

  • The alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP) gene is located between the albumin and alpha-albumin genes and is activated by transcription factor FTF (fetoprotein transcription factor), presumed to transduce early developmental signals to the albumin gene cluster [3].
  • Transcription of the oncodevelopmental protein, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), is stimulated by retinoic acid (RA) in neoplastic cells [4].
  • To study RA regulation of AFP gene expression, the 5'-flanking region of AFP gene was cloned and analyzed [4].
  • In the present study, transfection of deletion mutants and sequence analysis revealed a retinoid X receptor response element (AFP-RXRE) located at position -139 to -127 of the AFP promoter [4].
  • At 7 days of embryonic age, all the plasma AFP species are present in cerebrospinal fluid [5].

Biological context of LOC422652

  • These results confirm the occurrence of such a significant carrier globulin to embryonic development in one more tissue that can be added to the short list of AFP-producing tissues [6].
  • The results presented here strongly suggest a close association of AFP with cell proliferation and differentiation [7].

Anatomical context of LOC422652


Associations of LOC422652 with chemical compounds

  • The ontogeny of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been studied in the chicken (from 7 days of incubation until 2 days after hatching) using (1) the two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis technique, (2) the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and (3) the high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [5].
  • In 7-day-old chick embryo, AFP carries 16% and fSA 6% free FAs, the rest being carried as phospholipids, which differs from rat and pig AFP, where all fatty acids are carried like free fatty acids [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC422652

  • AFP had previously been detected by immunoelectrophoresis in CAM extracts under the suspicion that it could be a mere artifact resulting from blood contamination [6].
  • The joint use of organ culture and immunoperoxidase techniques has enabled us to find evidence for the synthesis of AFP in the cells of this layer [6].
  • Chicken alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) from the plasma of 12-day-old chick embryos was purified by electroelution from SDS/PAGE gels, and used to produce polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies [11].


  1. Histo-blotting: hybridization in situ detection of specific RNAs on tissue sections transferred on nitrocellulose. Gudkov, A.V., Kashkin, K.N., Zaitsevskaya, T.E., Troyanovsky, S.M. Int. J. Cancer (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro uptake of exogenous alpha-fetoprotein by chicken dorsal root ganglia. Hajeri-Germond, M., Trojan, J., Uriel, J., Hauw, J.J. Dev. Neurosci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. The alpha1-fetoprotein locus is activated by a nuclear receptor of the Drosophila FTZ-F1 family. Galarneau, L., Paré, J.F., Allard, D., Hamel, D., Levesque, L., Tugwood, J.D., Green, S., Bélanger, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Transactivation and repression of the alpha-fetoprotein gene promoter by retinoid X receptor and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor. Liu, Y., Chiu, J.F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in intra- and extraembryonic fluids of developing chick embryo. Martin, B., Vranckx, R., Denoulet, P., Nunez, E.A. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Localization and synthesis of alpha-fetoprotein in chorioallantoic membrane from chick embryo. Sanchez Palazon, L., Rodriguez-Burgos, A. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Localization of alpha-fetoprotein during the formation of the neural tube and somites in chick embryo. Sánchez Palazón, L., Rodríguez Burgos, A. Tissue & cell. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Localization and synthesis of alpha-fetoprotein in the chicken. Slade, B., Milne, J. Cell Tissue Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Selective localization of alpha-fetoprotein and serum albumin within the sensory ganglia cells of developing chicken. Vidal, R.M. Neurosci. Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Fatty acids and squalene carried by alpha fetoprotein, and fetal and adult serum albumin from chicken. Comparison with these from mammals. Copado, M.A., Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V., Rodríguez-Burgos, A. J. Protein Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Quantification of chicken alpha-fetoprotein: a useful tool in studies of embryo development and pathology. Uriarte, S., Barrena, M.J., Lopez de la Torre, B., Echaniz, P., Tovar, J.A., Cuadrado, E. J. Comp. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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