The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Afp  -  alpha-fetoprotein

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Alpha-1-fetoprotein, Alpha-fetoglobulin, Alpha-fetoprotein
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Afp


High impact information on Afp


Chemical compound and disease context of Afp


Biological context of Afp


Anatomical context of Afp


Associations of Afp with chemical compounds

  • Hepatocyte nuclear factor-6 stimulates transcription of the alpha-fetoprotein gene and synergizes with the retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor alpha-4 [16].
  • On the mechanism of bile acid inhibition of rat sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP8B1) transcription: roles of alpha-fetoprotein transcription factor and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha [21].
  • The results strongly suggested that a) the malignant properties of E2-sensitive cells in adult hosts can be controlled by AFP, and b) the mechanism by which AFP inhibits the growth of E2-sensitive cells is independent of the E2 "trapping" phenomenon [9].
  • Pulse and pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that dexamethasone inhibited the synthesis of AFP but not its secretion [22].
  • Radioimmunoassay of media from cell cultures grown in the presence of glucocorticoid (dexamethasone or cortisol) showed a reduction in AFP, an increase in albumin, and no significant change in transferrin accumulation, as compared to controls [22].

Physical interactions of Afp

  • It has been recently reported that bile acid-activated farnesoid X receptor (FXR) induces the small heterodimer partner (SHP) that interacts with alpha-fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF) and down-regulates CYP7A1 transcription [21].

Regulatory relationships of Afp


Other interactions of Afp

  • RESULTS: Under the specified culture conditions, rat MSCs co-cultured with FLC expressed albumin, CK-18, and AFP-RNA over two weeks [24].
  • The effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on morphology, actin cytoskeleton organization, anchorage-dependent proliferation, anchorage-independent proliferation, and alpha-fetoprotein secretion in a series of related hepatocyte-derived cell lines was measured [25].
  • Albumin-specific transcripts were decreased in all hepatocellular carcinoma but there was no consistent coordinated increase in alpha-fetoprotein-specific transcripts. c-myc and raf transcripts increased at the very early preneoplastic foci stage and continued to increase throughout the neoplastic process [26].
  • Also, the differentiation of oval cells into hepatocytes coincided with the loss of alpha-fetoprotein and OV-6 staining, and the replacement of the biliary cell-specific alpha6 integrin and connexin 43 with the hepatocyte-specific alpha1 integrin and connexin 32 [27].
  • The serum vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), a member of a multigene family that includes alpha-fetoprotein (alpha FP) and albumin (ALB), is expressed at high levels in the adult liver [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Afp


  1. Specific sets of DNase I-hypersensitive sites are associated with the potential and overt expression of the rat albumin and alpha-fetoprotein genes. Nahon, J.L., Venetianer, A., Sala-Trepat, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunofluorescent localization of alpha fetoprotein in yolk sac carcinomas of the rat. Delacourt, M.C., Sobis, H., Vandeputte, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of lifetime exposure to aflatoxin b1 in rats. Ward, J.M., Sontag, J.M., Weisburger, E.K., Brown, C.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. A sequential study of methapyrilene hydrochloride-induced liver carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. Ohshima, M., Ward, J.M., Brennan, L.M., Creasia, D.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Retroviral-mediated gene therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: an innovative approach for cancer therapy. Huber, B.E., Richards, C.A., Krenitsky, T.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. HNF-1 shares three sequence motifs with the POU domain proteins and is identical to LF-B1 and APF. Baumhueter, S., Mendel, D.B., Conley, P.B., Kuo, C.J., Turk, C., Graves, M.K., Edwards, C.A., Courtois, G., Crabtree, G.R. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. An anti-alpha-fetoprotein antibody-daunorubicin conjugate with a novel poly-L-glutamic acid derivative as intermediate drug carrier. Tsukada, Y., Kato, Y., Umemoto, N., Takeda, Y., Hara, T., Hirai, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Age-dependent growth inhibition of estrogen-sensitive rat mammary tumors. Probable role of alpha-fetoprotein. Sonnenschein, C., Ucci, A.A., Soto, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Growth inhibition of estrogen-sensitive rat mammary tumors. Effect of an alpha-fetoprotein-secreting hepatoma. Sonnenschein, C., Ucci, A.A., Soto, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Enhancer and promoter elements directing activation and glucocorticoid repression of the alpha 1-fetoprotein gene in hepatocytes. Guertin, M., LaRue, H., Bernier, D., Wrange, O., Chevrette, M., Gingras, M.C., Bélanger, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. alpha-Fetoprotein-mediated transfer of arachidonic acid into cultured cloned cells derived from a rat rhabdomyosarcoma. Uriel, J., Naval, J., Laborda, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of the rat alpha-fetoprotein gene expression in liver. Both the promoter region and an enhancer element are liver-specific and negatively modulated by dexamethasone. Poliard, A., Bakkali, L., Poiret, M., Foiret, D., Danan, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Biosynthesis of alpha-fetoprotein in cultured hepatoma cells. Mano, T., Chou, J.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Sequence homology between RNAs encoding rat alpha-fetoprotein and rat serum albumin. Jagodzinski, L.L., Sargent, T.D., Yang, M., Glackin, C., Bonner, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. The rat alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes. Transcriptional control and comparison of the sequence organization and promoter region. Nahon, J.L., Danan, J.L., Poiret, M., Tratner, I., Jose-Estanyol, M., Sala-Trepat, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-6 stimulates transcription of the alpha-fetoprotein gene and synergizes with the retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor alpha-4. Nacer-Cherif, H., Bois-Joyeux, B., Rousseau, G.G., Lemaigre, F.P., Danan, J.L. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of a rat variant alpha-fetoprotein. Watanabe, T., Jimenez-Molina, J.L., Chou, J.Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Alpha-fetoprotein: the major high-affinity estrogen binder in rat uterine cytosols. Uriel, J., Bouillon, D., Aussel, C., Dupiers, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. alpha-Fetoprotein is not a component of the estradiol receptor of the rat uterus. Radanyi, C., Mercier-Bodard, C., Secco-Millet, C., Baulieu, E.E., Richard-Foy, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential DNase I sensitivity of the albumin and alpha-fetoprotein genes in chromatin from rat tissues and cell lines. Nahon, J.L., Gal, A., Erdos, T., Sala-Trepat, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. On the mechanism of bile acid inhibition of rat sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP8B1) transcription: roles of alpha-fetoprotein transcription factor and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha. Yang, Y., Zhang, M., Eggertsen, G., Chiang, J.Y. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of synthesis of alpha-fetoprotein by glucocorticoids in cultured hepatoma cells. Chou, J.Y., Mano, T., Feldman, M. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Cellular analysis of the kinetics of alpha-fetoprotein and nuclear oncogene activation in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes stimulated by epidermal growth factor. Tournier-Thurneyssen, I., Feldmann, G., Bernuau, D. Biol. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in cocultures with fetal liver cells. Lange, C., Bruns, H., Kluth, D., Zander, A.R., Fiegel, H.C. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of transforming growth factor beta on rat hepatocyte cell lines depends upon the state of tumorigenic progression. Reeder, M.K., Isom, H.C. Cell Growth Differ. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Poly(A+)RNA levels of growth-, differentiation- and transformation-associated genes in the progressive development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat. Huber, B.E., Heilman, C.A., Thorgeirsson, S.S. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. 2-acetylaminofluorene dose-dependent differentiation of rat oval cells into hepatocytes: confocal and electron microscopic studies. Paku, S., Nagy, P., Kopper, L., Thorgeirsson, S.S. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. The vitamin D-binding protein, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin multigene family: detection of transcripts in multiple tissues. McLeod, J.F., Cooke, N.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of protein calorie malnutrition and cell replication on aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Rizvi, T.A., Mathur, M., Nayak, N.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Cellular analysis by in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase of alpha-fetoprotein and albumin gene expression in rat liver during the perinatal period. Poliard, A.M., Bernuau, D., Tournier, I., Legrès, L.G., Schoevaert, D., Feldmann, G., Sala-Trepat, J.M. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. alpha-Fetoprotein and albumin genes of rats: no evidence for amplification-deletion or rearrangement in rat liver carcinogenesis. Sala-Trepat, J.M., Sargent, T.D., Sell, S., Bonner, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities