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Gene Review

NPPC  -  natriuretic peptide C

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C-type natriuretic peptide, CNP, CNP2
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Disease relevance of NPPC


High impact information on NPPC

  • These cells can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) after either transfection with green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the CNP2 promoter, or A2B5-targeted immunotagging [2].
  • 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP1 and CNP2 with Mr of 46,000 and 48,000, respectively) is the major enzyme of central nervous system myelin [3].
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material revealed intense acylation of CNP1 and CNP2, and radioactivity was released by hydroxylamine [3].
  • These results provide conclusive evidence that CNP1 and CNP2 are fatty acid acylated with palmitate through a thioester linkage and is posttranslationally modified sometime after synthesis [3].
  • Our results point to a broader biological role for CNP2 in mitochondria that is likely to be different from its specific role in the cytoplasm, along with CNP1, during myelination [4].

Biological context of NPPC

  • Using somatic hybrid cell methodology, the CNP gene (NPPC) was assigned to human chromosome 2 [5].
  • PKC-mediated phosphorylation of the targeting signal inhibits CNP2 translocation to mitochondria, thus retaining it in the cytoplasm [4].
  • Monoclonal antibody production to human and bovine 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase): high-specificity recognition in whole brain acetone powders and conservation of sequence between CNP1 and CNP2 [6].
  • To identify oligodendrocyte progenitors in the adult human subcortical white matter, we transfected dissociates of capsular white matter with plasmid DNA bearing the gene for green fluorescence protein (hGFP), placed under the control of the human early promoter (P2) for the oligodendrocytic protein cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (P/hCNP2) [7].

Anatomical context of NPPC

  • A remarkable feature was the extensive ramifications of CNP1 cells with long filopodia processes delineating the CNP2 cells and their associated neurites, forming many perineurial-like compartments [8].
  • Present results have shown that CNP2 cells considered to be MSCs-derived can transform into cells resembling Schwann cells based on their spatial relation with the regenerating nerve fibers, whereas the CNP1 glial cells participate in formation of perineurial compartments, probably serving as conduits to guide the nerve fiber growth [8].
  • Moreover, the relative Coomassie blue staining intensity of the CNP2 plus CNP1 protein doublet among the species examined was remarkably similar to that observed for electrophoresed myelin and chloroform-methanol-insoluble pellet derived from myelin [9].

Associations of NPPC with chemical compounds

  • Comparisons with other proteins reveal several interesting conserved motifs, including two leucine repeat heptads, and two consensus motifs for phosphorylation in the N-terminal domain of CNP2 [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NPPC


  1. Differential expression of 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in cultured central, peripheral, and extraneural cells. Sprinkle, T.J., McMorris, F.A., Yoshino, J., DeVries, G.H. Neurochem. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and isolation of multipotential neural progenitor cells from the subcortical white matter of the adult human brain. Nunes, M.C., Roy, N.S., Keyoung, H.M., Goodman, R.R., McKhann, G., Jiang, L., Kang, J., Nedergaard, M., Goldman, S.A. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase in the central nervous system is fatty-acylated by thioester linkage. Agrawal, H.C., Sprinkle, T.J., Agrawal, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Mitochondrial localization of CNP2 is regulated by phosphorylation of the N-terminal targeting signal by PKC: implications of a mitochondrial function for CNP2 in glial and non-glial cells. Lee, J., O'Neill, R.C., Park, M.W., Gravel, M., Braun, P.E. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning and chromosomal assignment of the mouse C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) gene (Nppc): comparison with the human CNP gene (NPPC). Ogawa, Y., Itoh, H., Yoshitake, Y., Inoue, M., Yoshimasa, T., Serikawa, T., Nakao, K. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Monoclonal antibody production to human and bovine 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase): high-specificity recognition in whole brain acetone powders and conservation of sequence between CNP1 and CNP2. Sprinkle, T.J., Agee, J.F., Tippins, R.B., Chamberlain, C.R., Faguet, G.B., De Vries, G.H. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification, isolation, and promoter-defined separation of mitotic oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from the adult human subcortical white matter. Roy, N.S., Wang, S., Harrison-Restelli, C., Benraiss, A., Fraser, R.A., Gravel, M., Braun, P.E., Goldman, S.A. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase cells derived from transplanted marrow stromal cells and host tissue contribute to perineurial compartment formation in injured rat spinal cord. Cao, Q., Ding, P., Lu, J., Dheen, S.T., Moochhala, S., Ling, E.A. J. Neurosci. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Studies on the Wolfgram high molecular weight CNS myelin proteins: relationship to 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Sprinkle, T.J., Wells, M.R., Garver, F.A., Smith, D.B. J. Neurochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of rat brain 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase isoform 2. Gravel, M., DeAngelis, D., Braun, P.E. J. Neurosci. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Selective synthesis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase isoform 2 and identification of specifically phosphorylated serine residues. O'Neill, R.C., Braun, P.E. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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