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Gene Review

SPRR1A  -  small proline-rich protein 1A

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 19 kDa pancornulin, Cornifin-A, SPR-IA, SPRK, Small proline-rich protein IA
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Disease relevance of SPRR1A


High impact information on SPRR1A

  • Our data suggest that repetin and SPRR1A and 2A are downregulated in response to the downregulation of Klf4 in the transgenic animals, which would contribute to decreased protein crossbridging leading to fragile, defective cornified envelopes [4].
  • The strict AP-1 requirement in SPRR1A for calcium-induced differentiation is not found for SPRR2A, despite the presence of an identical AP-1 consensus binding site in this gene [5].
  • In the distal SPRR1A promoter region, a complex arrangement of positive and negative regulatory elements, which are only conditionally needed for promoter activity, are likely involved in gene-specific fine-tuning of the expression of this member of the SPRR gene family [5].
  • The 173-base pair proximal promoter of SPRR1A is necessary and sufficient for regulated expression in primary keratinocytes induced to differentiate either by increasing extracellular calcium or by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment [5].
  • Biochemical and sequencing analyses reveal that the CEs contain 60-70% small proline-rich protein 1a/b (SPR1a/b), together with smaller amounts of involucrin, annexin I and several other known CE proteins [6].

Biological context of SPRR1A

  • Neuronal SPRR1A may be a significant contributor to successful nerve regeneration [7].
  • CONCLUSION: The data of SS-SPRIA revealed the 93-100 loop of amino acid sequence, as the core region of conformation-specific epitope of hCG-beta at or near the receptor-binding region [8].

Anatomical context of SPRR1A

  • In axotomized sensory neurons, reduction of SPRR1A function restricts axonal outgrowth [7].
  • A single-step solid-phase RIA (SS-SPRIA) developed in our laboratory using hybridoma culture supernatants has been utilised for the quantitation of epitope-paratope interactions [9].

Associations of SPRR1A with chemical compounds

  • These binding properties of HAG to the solid-phase C1q in the presence of the liquid-phase C1q were not essentially altered by the heat inactivation or the addition of EDTA, suggesting that these pretreatments are not essential in C1q SPRIA [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SPRR1A

  • A single step solid phase radioimmunoassay (SS-SPRIA) has been developed for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) from culture media adsorbed immunochemically on plastic tubes [11].
  • Several MAbs which do not show any displacement in liquid phase RIA and ELISA provide a satisfactory SS-SPRIA [11].


  1. Differential expression of protease inhibitor and small proline-rich protein genes between normal human oral tissue and odontogenic keratocysts. Robinson, P.A., Marley, J.J., High, A.S., Hume, W.J. Arch. Oral Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Antibodies to poliovirus detected by immunoradiometric assay with a monoclonal antibody. Spitz, M., Fossati, C.A., Schild, G.C., Spitz, L., Brasher, M. J. Virol. Methods (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Staphylococcus aureus antibodies in patients with staphylococcal septicemia. Comparisons between solid-phase radioimmunoassay and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Christensson, B., Espersen, F., Hedström, S.A., Kronvall, G. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Permeability barrier dysfunction in transgenic mice overexpressing claudin 6. Turksen, K., Troy, T.C. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. AP-1 and ets transcription factors regulate the expression of the human SPRR1A keratinocyte terminal differentiation marker. Sark, M.W., Fischer, D.F., de Meijer, E., van de Putte, P., Backendorf, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes. Lee, C.H., Marekov, L.N., Kim, S., Brahim, J.S., Park, M.H., Steinert, P.M. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Small proline-rich repeat protein 1A is expressed by axotomized neurons and promotes axonal outgrowth. Bonilla, I.E., Tanabe, K., Strittmatter, S.M. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular dissection of an hCG-beta epitope using single-step solid phase radioimmunoassay. Prasad, P.V., Chaube, S.K., Panchal, M., Chaudhary, R., Muralidhar, K., Rohil, V., Kumari, G.L., Kumar, A., Ashish, B., Murthy, G.S., Shrivastav, T.G. Clin. Chim. Acta (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunochemical approach to the mapping of an assembled epitope of human chorionic gonadotropin: proximity of CTP-alpha to the receptor binding region of the beta-subunit. Venkatesh, N., Murthy, G.S. J. Immunol. Methods (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. C1q solid-phase radioimmunoassay: binding properties of solid-phase C1q and evidence that C1q-binding IgG complexes in systemic lupus erythematosus are not bound to endogenous C1q. Uwatoko, S., Aotsuka, S., Okawa, M., Egusa, Y., Yokohari, R., Aizawa, C., Suzuki, K. J. Immunol. Methods (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Dissociation of monoclonal antibody-antigen complexes: implications for ELISA procedures. Venkatesh, N., Murthy, G.S. J. Immunol. Methods (1996) [Pubmed]
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