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Gene Review

SPRR3  -  small proline-rich protein 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 22 kDa pancornulin, Cornifin beta, Esophagin, SPRC, Small proline-rich protein 3
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Disease relevance of SPRR3


High impact information on SPRR3

  • Whereas group 1 genes have diverged in protein structure and are composed of three different classes (SPRR1 (2x), SPRR3, and SPRR4), an active process of gene conversion has counteracted diversification of the protein sequences of group 2 genes (SPRR2 class, seven genes) [5].
  • Esophagin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are biomarkers of human esophageal neoplastic progression [6].
  • In morphologically normal esophageal epithelium, esophagin stains the granular layer cells, principally in their cell membrane portions [6].
  • In the squamous dysplasias, there was more intense staining (of esophagin) in the atypical nuclei and superficial squamous epithelial cells than in the basal cells [6].
  • Northern blot, dot blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that SPRR3 expression was lost in three cell lines of oesophageal carcinoma and was dramatically decreased in 54 out of 57 primary oesophageal carcinomas compared with adjacent normal mucosa [7].

Biological context of SPRR3

  • Thus, SPRR1, SPRR2, and SPRR3 are differentially expressed in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that the SPRR multigene family evolved to serve as highly specialized cornified cell envelope precursor proteins in stratified epithelia [8].
  • The repositioning of the SPRR3 Ets binding site during evolution has a major effect on the relative contribution of this site to promoter activity [9].
  • In conjunction with published human in vivo studies, these data support the hypothesis that esophagin is a biomarker of esophageal squamous cell differentiation and provide an in vitro model to evaluate regulatory factors involved in this differentiation process [10].
  • A genomic clone containing esophagin was isolated and sequenced, including 2.7 kb of the esophagin promoter region [10].

Anatomical context of SPRR3


Associations of SPRR3 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of SPRR3


Other interactions of SPRR3


  1. Molecular characterization of a novel amplicon at 1q21-q22 frequently observed in human sarcomas. Forus, A., Berner, J.M., Meza-Zepeda, L.A., Saeter, G., Mischke, D., Fodstad, O., Myklebost, O. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of small proline rich proteins in neoplastic and inflammatory skin diseases. De Heller-Milev, M., Huber, M., Panizzon, R., Hohl, D. Br. J. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential expression of human cornifin alpha and beta in squamous differentiating epithelial tissues and several skin lesions. Fujimoto, W., Nakanishi, G., Arata, J., Jetten, A.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Progression of Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with the suppression of the transcriptional programs of epidermal differentiation. Kimchi, E.T., Posner, M.C., Park, J.O., Darga, T.E., Kocherginsky, M., Karrison, T., Hart, J., Smith, K.D., Mezhir, J.J., Weichselbaum, R.R., Khodarev, N.N. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in adaptive barrier function. Cabral, A., Voskamp, P., Cleton-Jansen, A.M., South, A., Nizetic, D., Backendorf, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Esophagin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are biomarkers of human esophageal neoplastic progression. Kimos, M.C., Wang, S., Borkowski, A., Yang, G.Y., Yang, C.S., Perry, K., Olaru, A., Deacu, E., Sterian, A., Cottrell, J., Papadimitriou, J., Sisodia, L., Selaru, F.M., Mori, Y., Xu, Y., Yin, J., Abraham, J.M., Meltzer, S.J. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Decreased expression of SPRR3 in Chinese human oesophageal cancer. Chen, B.S., Wang, M.R., Cai, Y., Xu, X., Xu, Z.X., Han, Y.L., Wu, M. Carcinogenesis (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The small proline-rich proteins constitute a multigene family of differentially regulated cornified cell envelope precursor proteins. Hohl, D., de Viragh, P.A., Amiguet-Barras, F., Gibbs, S., Backendorf, C., Huber, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure and evolution of the human SPRR3 gene: implications for function and regulation. Fischer, D.F., Sark, M.W., Lehtola, M.M., Gibbs, S., van de Putte, P., Backendorf, C. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Activation of the esophagin promoter during esophageal epithelial cell differentiation. Smolinski, K.N., Abraham, J.M., Souza, R.F., Yin, J., Wang, S., Xu, Y., Zou, T.T., Kong, D., Fleisher, A.S., Meltzer, S.J. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Temperature-sensitive regulation of epidermal morphogenesis and the expression of cornified envelope precursors by EGF and TGF alpha. Gibbs, S., Boelsma, E., Kempenaar, J., Ponec, M. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential expression of protease inhibitor and small proline-rich protein genes between normal human oral tissue and odontogenic keratocysts. Robinson, P.A., Marley, J.J., High, A.S., Hume, W.J. Arch. Oral Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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