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Gene Review

SPRR1B  -  small proline-rich protein 1B

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 14.9 kDa pancornulin, CORNIFIN, Cornifin-B, GADD33, SPR-IB, ...
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Disease relevance of SPRR1B


High impact information on SPRR1B


Chemical compound and disease context of SPRR1B


Biological context of SPRR1B


Anatomical context of SPRR1B

  • Various toxicants and carcinogens upregulate the expression of small proline-rich protein 1B (SPRR1B), a squamous differentiation marker, in bronchial epithelial cells both in vivo and in vitro [9].
  • In normal human skin, cornifin-alpha was expressed in the granular layer of the epidermis of palmoplantar skin, in the inner lining cells of the follicular infundibulum, and in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle [2].
  • Molecular characterization and evolution of the SPRR family of keratinocyte differentiation markers encoding small proline-rich proteins [8].
  • The overexpression of SPRR1B in bronchial epithelium is a marker for early metaplastic changes and the loss of its expression is associated with an irreversible malignant transformation [3].
  • It is highly expressed in esophagus, tongue, and oral mucosa but, in contrast to cornifin alpha, is not detectable in the epidermis [10].

Associations of SPRR1B with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of SPRR1B

  • Intriguingly, the composition of AP-1 protein binding to the -152 to -86 bp SPRR1B promoter is quite different [3].

Regulatory relationships of SPRR1B

  • BMK1 (ERK5) regulates squamous differentiation marker SPRR1B transcription in Clara-like H441 cells [9].
  • Overexpression of fra1 in malignant cells significantly enhanced SPRR1B promoter activity [3].

Other interactions of SPRR1B

  • Here we show that SPRR proteins are encoded by closely related members of a gene family, consisting of two genes of SPRR1, approximately seven genes for SPRR2, and a single gene for SPRR3 [8].
  • The transcriptional induction of SPRR1B by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is mainly mediated by the first -152-base pair 5'-flanking region containing two functional AP-1 sites [14].
  • In the distal SPRR1A promoter region, a complex arrangement of positive and negative regulatory elements, which are only conditionally needed for promoter activity, are likely involved in gene-specific fine-tuning of the expression of this member of the SPRR gene family [15].
  • In untreated cells, SPRR1B promoter is predominantly occupied by JunD and Fra2 [3].
  • This conclusion is further substantiated by the finding that expression of ESE-1, an Ets transcription factor involved in SPRR regulation, is also induced by TPA, with kinetics similar to SPRR1A [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SPRR1B


  1. SPRR1B overexpression enhances entry of cells into the G0 phase of the cell cycle. Tesfaigzi, Y., Wright, P.S., Belinsky, S.A. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential expression of human cornifin alpha and beta in squamous differentiating epithelial tissues and several skin lesions. Fujimoto, W., Nakanishi, G., Arata, J., Jetten, A.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanism of repression of squamous differentiation marker, SPRR1B, in malignant bronchial epithelial cells: role of critical TRE-sites and its transacting factors. Patterson, T., Vuong, H., Liaw, Y.S., Wu, R., Kalvakolanu, D.V., Reddy, S.P. Oncogene (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Differentiation-associated localization of small proline-rich protein in normal and diseased human skin. Koizumi, H., Kartasova, T., Tanaka, H., Ohkawara, A., Kuroki, T. Br. J. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Cornifin, a cross-linked envelope precursor in keratinocytes that is down-regulated by retinoids. Marvin, K.W., George, M.D., Fujimoto, W., Saunders, N.A., Bernacki, S.H., Jetten, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Interplay between proximal and distal promoter elements is required for squamous differentiation marker induction in the bronchial epithelium: role for ESE-1, Sp1, and AP-1 proteins. Reddy, S.P., Vuong, H., Adiseshaiah, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Decreased expression of retinoic acid receptors, transforming growth factor beta, involucrin, and cornifin in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Xu, X.C., Mitchell, M.F., Silva, E., Jetten, A., Lotan, R. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular characterization and evolution of the SPRR family of keratinocyte differentiation markers encoding small proline-rich proteins. Gibbs, S., Fijneman, R., Wiegant, J., van Kessel, A.G., van De Putte, P., Backendorf, C. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. BMK1 (ERK5) regulates squamous differentiation marker SPRR1B transcription in Clara-like H441 cells. Reddy, S.P., Adiseshaiah, P., Shapiro, P., Vuong, H. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and regulation of cornifin beta, a new member of the cornifin/spr family. Suppression by retinoic acid receptor-selective retinoids. Austin, S.J., Fujimoto, W., Marvin, K.W., Vollberg, T.M., Lorand, L., Jetten, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Esophagin cDNA cloning and characterization: a tissue-specific member of the small proline-rich protein family that is not expressed in esophageal tumors. Abraham, J.M., Wang, S., Suzuki, H., Jiang, H.Y., Rosenblum-Vos, L.S., Yin, J., Meltzer, S.J. Cell Growth Differ. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of cornifin in squamous differentiating epithelial tissues, including psoriatic and retinoic acid-treated skin. Fujimoto, W., Marvin, K.W., George, M.D., Celli, G., Darwiche, N., De Luca, L.M., Jetten, A.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of cell cornification and enhanced squamous-cell marker SPRR1 gene expression by phorbol ester are regulated by different signaling pathways in human conducting airway epithelial cells. Deng, J., Chen, Y., Wu, R. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Phorbol ester-induced expression of airway squamous cell differentiation marker, SPRR1B, is regulated by protein kinase Cdelta /Ras/MEKK1/MKK1-dependent/AP-1 signal transduction pathway. Vuong, H., Patterson, T., Shapiro, P., Kalvakolanu, D.V., Wu, R., Ma, W.Y., Dong, Z., Kleeberger, S.R., Reddy, S.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. AP-1 and ets transcription factors regulate the expression of the human SPRR1A keratinocyte terminal differentiation marker. Sark, M.W., Fischer, D.F., de Meijer, E., van de Putte, P., Backendorf, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Distinct roles for amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences of SPRR1 protein in the formation of cross-linked envelopes of conducting airway epithelial cells. Deng, J., Pan, R., Wu, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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