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Gene Review

RGA1  -  DELLA protein RGA

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: F2I9.19, F2I9_19, REPRESSOR OF GA, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 1, RGA
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Disease relevance of RGA1

  • A cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein in rice (RGA1) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and then isolated by Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography [1].
  • The RGA1 protein contains all the consensus regions of G protein alpha subunits except the cysteine residue near the C-terminus for ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin [2].

High impact information on RGA1

  • We also show that auxin is necessary for GA-mediated control of root growth, and that attenuation of auxin transport or signalling delays the GA-induced disappearance of RGA from root cell nuclei [3].
  • Here, we show that RGL2 regulates seed germination in response to GA, and that RGL1, GAI, and RGA do not [4].
  • Here we report the molecular cloning of GAI and a closely related gene GRS [5].
  • The DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) accumulated in the triple mutant, whose phenotype could be partially rescued by loss of RGA function [6].
  • The rga and gai null mutations additively suppressed the recessive sly1 mutant phenotype, further supporting the model that SCFSLY1 targets both RGA and GAI for degradation [7].

Biological context of RGA1


Associations of RGA1 with chemical compounds

  • Photoaffinity labelling with [alpha-32P]GTP and a GTP[S]-binding assay revealed that RGA1 incorporated 32P and showed specific binding to a guanine nucleotide [1].
  • Guanidine binding of RGA1 was affected by the concentration of MgCl2 (maximum at 2 mM) [1].
  • The presence of several structural features, including homopolymeric serine and threonine residues, a putative nuclear localization signal, leucine heptad repeats, and an LXXLL motif, indicates that the RGA protein may be a transcriptional regulator that represses the GA response [9].

Regulatory relationships of RGA1


Other interactions of RGA1

  • GAI and RGA are known to be negative regulators of gibberellin (GA) responses [11].
  • As with RGA, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged RGL1 protein was localized to the nucleus, but unlike GFP-RGA, there was no degradation after GA treatment [11].
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana, GA derepresses its signaling pathway by inducing proteolysis of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) [7].
  • GA thus promotes Arabidopsis petal, stamen and anther development by opposing the function of the DELLA proteins RGA, RGL1 and RGL2 [12].
  • However, the C-terminal amino acid sequence, which has been proposed to be a receptor-binding region, of RGA1 was different not only from the analogous sequences of mammalian alpha subunits but also from those of the products of GPA1 and TGA1 [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RGA1


  1. Biochemical characteristics of a rice (Oryza sativa L., IR36) G-protein alpha-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli. Seo, H.S., Choi, C.H., Lee, S.Y., Cho, M.J., Bahk, J.D. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of RGA1 encoding a G protein alpha subunit from rice (Oryza sativa L. IR-36). Seo, H.S., Kim, H.Y., Jeong, J.Y., Lee, S.Y., Cho, M.J., Bahk, J.D. Plant Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Auxin promotes Arabidopsis root growth by modulating gibberellin response. Fu, X., Harberd, N.P. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis seed germination via RGL2, a GAI/RGA-like gene whose expression is up-regulated following imbibition. Lee, S., Cheng, H., King, K.E., Wang, W., He, Y., Hussain, A., Lo, J., Harberd, N.P., Peng, J. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses. Peng, J., Carol, P., Richards, D.E., King, K.E., Cowling, R.J., Murphy, G.P., Harberd, N.P. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic Characterization and Functional Analysis of the GID1 Gibberellin Receptors in Arabidopsis. Griffiths, J., Murase, K., Rieu, I., Zentella, R., Zhang, Z.L., Powers, S.J., Gong, F., Phillips, A.L., Hedden, P., Sun, T.P., Thomas, S.G. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The Arabidopsis F-box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation. Dill, A., Thomas, S.G., Hu, J., Steber, C.M., Sun, T.P. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. The Arabidopsis SLEEPY1 gene encodes a putative F-box subunit of an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase. McGinnis, K.M., Thomas, S.G., Soule, J.D., Strader, L.C., Zale, J.M., Sun, T.P., Steber, C.M. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The Arabidopsis RGA gene encodes a transcriptional regulator repressing the gibberellin signal transduction pathway. Silverstone, A.L., Ciampaglio, C.N., Sun, T. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. A role for the ubiquitin-26S-proteasome pathway in gibberellin signaling. Itoh, H., Matsuoka, M., Steber, C.M. Trends Plant Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Arabidopsis RGL1 encodes a negative regulator of gibberellin responses. Wen, C.K., Chang, C. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis floral development via suppression of DELLA protein function. Cheng, H., Qin, L., Lee, S., Fu, X., Richards, D.E., Cao, D., Luo, D., Harberd, N.P., Peng, J. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA for the alpha subunit of a G protein from rice. Ishikawa, A., Tsubouchi, H., Iwasaki, Y., Asahi, T. Plant Cell Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Repressing a repressor: gibberellin-induced rapid reduction of the RGA protein in Arabidopsis. Silverstone, A.L., Jung, H.S., Dill, A., Kawaide, H., Kamiya, Y., Sun, T.P. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
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