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Gene Review

SCR  -  protein SCARECROW

Arabidopsis thaliana



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Disease relevance of SCR

  • Analysis of two S (sterility) locus haplotypes demonstrates that the A. lyrata S locus contains tightly linked orthologs of the S locus receptor kinase (SRK) gene and the S locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR) gene, which are the determinants of SI specificity in stigma and pollen, respectively, but lacks an S locus glycoprotein gene [1].

High impact information on SCR

  • From analyses of gene expression and cell identity in genetically stable and unstable alleles of shr, we conclude that SHR functions upstream of SCR and participates in a radial signaling pathway [2].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of SCARECROW (SCR) suggests that it is a member of a novel family of putative transcription factors [3].
  • SCR is expressed in the cortex/endodermal initial cells and in the endodermal cell lineage [3].
  • Using this system, we show that SCR acts cell-autonomously to control asymmetric cell division within the ground tissue [4].
  • We show that the putative transcription factor SCARECROW (SCR), first identified by its role in radial patterning, is required cell-autonomously for distal specification of the QC, which in turn regulates stem cell fate of immediately surrounding cells [5].

Biological context of SCR

  • Analysis of SCR expression and the mutant phenotype from the earliest stages of embryogenesis revealed a tight correlation between defective cell divisions and SCR expression in cells that contribute to ground tissue radial patterning in both embryonic root and shoot [6].
  • Endodermis-specific expression of SGR3 and ZIG by using the SCR promoter could complement the abnormal shoot gravitropism of each mutant [7].
  • We therefore investigated whether morning glory SCR (PnSCR) is involved in the weeping phenotype [8].
  • A number of Arabidopsis Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) have been identified that encode gene products bearing remarkable similarity to SCR throughout their carboxyl-termini, indicating that SCR is the prototype of a novel gene family [9].
  • Here we show that the Arabidopsis genome includes two large gene families with homology to SCR and to the PCP gene family, respectively [10].

Associations of SCR with chemical compounds


Other interactions of SCR

  • One of them, SCL3, has a tissue-specific pattern of expression in the root similar to SCR [9].
  • RGA1, RGA2 and SCR share several structural features and may define a new family of genes [12].
  • In addition, expression of SCARECROW (SCR) in the quiescent center (QC) disappeared in the disorganized RAM of tsk mutant [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SCR

  • Sequence analysis of the products of the GRAS (GAI, RGA, SCR) gene family indicates that they share a variable amino-terminus and a highly conserved carboxyl-terminus that contains five recognizable motifs [9].
  • A Northern blot analysis revealed a single 3.2-kb pea SCR transcript in addition to a closely related 2.5-kb transcript [11].
  • Our in situ hybridization data indicated that pea SCR mRNA accumulated in the shoot apical meristem, leaf primordia and a root single cell layer corresponding to the endodermis [11].


  1. Self-incompatibility in the genus Arabidopsis: characterization of the S locus in the outcrossing A. lyrata and its autogamous relative A. thaliana. Kusaba, M., Dwyer, K., Hendershot, J., Vrebalov, J., Nasrallah, J.B., Nasrallah, M.E. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. The SHORT-ROOT gene controls radial patterning of the Arabidopsis root through radial signaling. Helariutta, Y., Fukaki, H., Wysocka-Diller, J., Nakajima, K., Jung, J., Sena, G., Hauser, M.T., Benfey, P.N. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The SCARECROW gene regulates an asymmetric cell division that is essential for generating the radial organization of the Arabidopsis root. Di Laurenzio, L., Wysocka-Diller, J., Malamy, J.E., Pysh, L., Helariutta, Y., Freshour, G., Hahn, M.G., Feldmann, K.A., Benfey, P.N. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Mosaic analyses using marked activation and deletion clones dissect Arabidopsis SCARECROW action in asymmetric cell division. Heidstra, R., Welch, D., Scheres, B. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. SCARECROW is involved in positioning the stem cell niche in the Arabidopsis root meristem. Sabatini, S., Heidstra, R., Wildwater, M., Scheres, B. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular analysis of SCARECROW function reveals a radial patterning mechanism common to root and shoot. Wysocka-Diller, J.W., Helariutta, Y., Fukaki, H., Malamy, J.E., Benfey, P.N. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. A SNARE complex containing SGR3/AtVAM3 and ZIG/VTI11 in gravity-sensing cells is important for Arabidopsis shoot gravitropism. Yano, D., Sato, M., Saito, C., Sato, M.H., Morita, M.T., Tasaka, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Shoot circumnutation and winding movements require gravisensing cells. Kitazawa, D., Hatakeda, Y., Kamada, M., Fujii, N., Miyazawa, Y., Hoshino, A., Iida, S., Fukaki, H., Morita, M.T., Tasaka, M., Suge, H., Takahashi, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The GRAS gene family in Arabidopsis: sequence characterization and basic expression analysis of the SCARECROW-LIKE genes. Pysh, L.D., Wysocka-Diller, J.W., Camilleri, C., Bouchez, D., Benfey, P.N. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Two large Arabidopsis thaliana gene families are homologous to the Brassica gene superfamily that encodes pollen coat proteins and the male component of the self-incompatibility response. Vanoosthuyse, V., Miege, C., Dumas, C., Cock, J.M. Plant Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The molecular characterization and in situ expression pattern of pea SCARECROW gene. Sassa, N., Matsushita, Y., Nakamura, T., Nyunoya, H. Plant Cell Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequence and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs isolated by functional complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 mutant. Truong, H.N., Caboche, M., Daniel-Vedele, F. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. A novel Arabidopsis gene TONSOKU is required for proper cell arrangement in root and shoot apical meristems. Suzuki, T., Inagaki, S., Nakajima, S., Akashi, T., Ohto, M.A., Kobayashi, M., Seki, M., Shinozaki, K., Kato, T., Tabata, S., Nakamura, K., Morikami, A. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
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