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Gene Review

PGM  -  phosphoglucomutase

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on PGM

  • This platform was used to analyze the diurnal changes of enzyme activities in wild-type Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the starchless plastid phosphoglucomutase (pgm) mutant, and in Col-0 during a prolongation of the night [1].
  • Taken together, the results suggest that ARG1 and ARL2 function in the same gravity signal transduction pathway in the hypocotyl and root of Arabidopsis seedlings, distinct from the pathway involving PGM [2].
  • The ARG1-LIKE2 gene of Arabidopsis functions in a gravity signal transduction pathway that is genetically distinct from the PGM pathway [2].
  • Our results indicate that plastidic PGM is an important factor affecting carbon flux in triacylglycerol accumulation in oilseed plants, most likely through its essential role in starch synthesis [3].
  • The Calvin cycle intermediates fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate exerted an inhibitory effect on PGM activity, supporting its proposed involvement in controlling photosynthetic carbon flow [3].

Biological context of PGM


Anatomical context of PGM


Associations of PGM with chemical compounds

  • The substrate for PGM, glucose 6-phosphate, accumulated in stf1 during the day, resulting in 10-fold higher content than in the wild type at the end of the photoperiod [5].
  • Furthermore, we discovered that the AtPGM promoter was down-regulated by abscisic acid and hydroxyurea, whereas it was induced by sucrose, oryzalin, and auxin, thereby revealing expression characteristics typical of genes with roles in meristematic cells [6].
  • To test this hypothesis, we have compared the ADPG content in both Arabidopsis and potato wild-type (WT) leaves with those of the starch-deficient mutants with reduced pPGM and AGP [7].

Other interactions of PGM

  • Some enzyme activity QTLs mapped very close to known enzyme-encoding loci (e.g., hexokinase, PGI, and PGM) [8].
  • Assessment of the auxin-inducible AUX1 gene promoter (a gene coding for a polar auxin transport protein) similarly revealed feeding cell and meristem expression, suggesting that auxin may be responsible for the observed tissue specificity of the AtPGM promoter [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PGM


  1. A Robot-based platform to measure multiple enzyme activities in Arabidopsis using a set of cycling assays: comparison of changes of enzyme activities and transcript levels during diurnal cycles and in prolonged darkness. Gibon, Y., Blaesing, O.E., Hannemann, J., Carillo, P., Höhne, M., Hendriks, J.H., Palacios, N., Cross, J., Selbig, J., Stitt, M. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The ARG1-LIKE2 gene of Arabidopsis functions in a gravity signal transduction pathway that is genetically distinct from the PGM pathway. Guan, C., Rosen, E.S., Boonsirichai, K., Poff, K.L., Masson, P.H. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The plastidic phosphoglucomutase from Arabidopsis. A reversible enzyme reaction with an important role in metabolic control. Periappuram, C., Steinhauer, L., Barton, D.L., Taylor, D.C., Chatson, B., Zou, J. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Gravitropism in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Mano, E., Horiguchi, G., Tsukaya, H. Plant Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular characterisation of a new mutant allele of the plastid phosphoglucomutase in Arabidopsis, and complementation of the mutant with the wild-type cDNA. Kofler, H., Häusler, R.E., Schulz, B., Gröner, F., Flügge, U.I., Weber, A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of an Arabidopsis phosphoglycerate mutase homologue is localized to apical meristems, regulated by hormones, and induced by sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. Mazarei, M., Lennon, K.A., Puthoff, D.P., Rodermel, S.R., Baum, T.J. Plant Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Sucrose synthase controls both intracellular ADP glucose levels and transitory starch biosynthesis in source leaves. Muñoz, F.J., Baroja-Fernández, E., Morán-Zorzano, M.T., Viale, A.M., Etxeberria, E., Alonso-Casajús, N., Pozueta-Romero, J. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The molecular basis of quantitative genetic variation in central and secondary metabolism in Arabidopsis. Mitchell-Olds, T., Pedersen, D. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Reduced gravitropic sensitivity in roots of a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris. Kiss, J.Z., Sack, F.D. Planta (1989) [Pubmed]
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