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Gene Review

Pgm  -  phosphoglucose mutase

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG5165, Dmel\CG5165, Glucose phosphomutase, PGM, PGM-1, ...
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High impact information on Pgm

  • The enzymes catalyzing near-equilibrium reactions, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, and triosephosphate isomerase fail to show any decline in flight performance even when activity levels are reduced to 17% or less [1].
  • A single Pgm haplotype defined by two amino acid polymorphisms shows the strongest correlation with latitude and the steepest change in allele frequency across the cline [2].
  • Our recent DNA sequence investigation of Pgm found extensive cryptic amino acid polymorphism segregating with the allozyme alleles [2].
  • In this study, we characterize the geographic variation of Pgm amino acid polymorphisms at the nucleotide level along a latitudinal cline in the eastern United States. A survey of 15 SNPs across the Pgm gene finds significant clinal differentiation for the allozyme polymorphisms as well as for many of the cryptic amino acid polymorphisms [2].
  • We find a twofold difference in activity among PGM protein haplotypes that is associated with a threefold difference in glycogen content [3].

Biological context of Pgm

  • In contrast, there is no consistent evidence for the latitudinal cline in Pgm gene frequencies in any of the three zones with Pgm1.00 frequency generally about 85 per cent and Pgm1.20 and Pgm0.70 frequencies each between 5 per cent and 10 per cent [4].
  • Our experiment showed that selection did operate on a region of the chromosome marked by Pgm, but that no evidence of selection at loci marked by Est-6 was apparent [5].
  • There is also strong linkage disequilibrium across the 2354 bp of the Pgm locus, which may be explained by a specific amino acid haplotype that is high in frequency yet contains an excess of singleton polymorphisms [6].
  • Under the conditions tested, altered Pgm gene expression had no detectable effect on adult Drosophila lifespan [7].
  • RESULTS: The Pgm alleles were cloned and sequenced and were found to differ by amino-acid substitutions consistent with the relative electrophoretic mobilities of the proteins [7].

Anatomical context of Pgm


Associations of Pgm with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Pgm


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pgm


  1. Flux control and excess capacity in the enzymes of glycolysis and their relationship to flight metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. Eanes, W.F., Merritt, T.J., Flowers, J.M., Kumagai, S., Sezgin, E., Zhu, C.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinal variation for amino acid polymorphisms at the Pgm locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Verrelli, B.C., Eanes, W.F. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The functional impact of Pgm amino acid polymorphism on glycogen content in Drosophila melanogaster. Verrelli, B.C., Eanes, W.F. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Latitudinal relationships of esterase-6 and phosphoglucomutase gene frequencies in Drosophila melanogaster. Oakeshott, J.G., Chambers, G.K., Gibson, J.B., Willcocks, D.A. Heredity (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. The effects of lethal selection on the EST-6 to PGM region of chromosome 3 in Drosophila melanogaster. Cochrane, B.J., Richmond, R.C. Genetics (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Extensive amino acid polymorphism at the pgm locus is consistent with adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila melanogaster. Verrelli, B.C., Eanes, W.F. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Doxycycline-induced expression of sense and inverted-repeat constructs modulates phosphogluconate mutase (Pgm) gene expression in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Allikian, M.J., Deckert-Cruz, D., Rose, M.R., Landis, G.N., Tower, J. Genome Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The expression pattern and cellular localisation of Myosin VI during the Drosophila melanogaster life cycle. Millo, H., Bownes, M. Gene Expr. Patterns (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Survivorship and gene frequencies of Drosophila melanogaster populations in abnormal oxygen atmospheres. Kloek, G.P., Ralin, D.B., Ridgel, G.C. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Enhanced phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of phosphoglucomutase by the Btk29A tyrosine kinase in Drosophila. Inoue, H., Kondo, S., Hinohara, Y., Juni, N., Yamamoto, D. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of Megatrypanum trypanosomes from European Cervidae. Böse, R., Petersen, K., Pospichal, H., Buchanan, N., Tait, A. Parasitology (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Linkage disequilibrium in natural and experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Smit-McBride, Z., Moya, A., Ayala, F.J. Genetics (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Allozyme genotype--environment relationships in natural populations of Drosophila buzzatii. Mulley, J.C., James, J.W., Barker, J.S. Biochem. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Properties of the two common electrophoretic variants of phosphoglucomutase in Drosophila melanogaster. Fucci, L., Gaudio, L., Rao, R., Spanò, A., Carfagna, M. Biochem. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Investigations on the PGM (phosphoglucomutase) polymorphism by isoelectric focusing in Drosophila melanogaster. Cicchetti, R., Argentin, G., Nicoletti, B. Biochem. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
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