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Gene Review

ATS1  -  glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ATS1


High impact information on ATS1


Biological context of ATS1

  • However, the corresponding mutant alleles have not yet been analyzed at the molecular level and a causal relationship between the mutant phenotypes and a deficiency at the ATS1 locus has not been established [7].
  • The gene (designated ATS1) was isolated by screening a lambda DASH genomic library for cross-hybridization with a radiolabeled probe prepared from cDNA for GPAT from squash. cDNA clones representing the mRNA were isolated by screening a lambda ZAPII cDNA library for hybridization with a radiolabeled probe prepared from a DNA fragment of ATS1 [8].
  • Southern analysis of Arabidopsis genomic DNA indicated that ATS1 is a member of a small gene family and that ATS3 is present as a single copy in the diploid genome [9].
  • This led to the identification of a limited number of proteins: four different oleosins, ATS1, a protein homologous to calcium binding protein, a 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein, a probable aquaporin and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein with no known function [10].
  • cDNA cloning, gene expression and subcellular localization of anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase from Gentiana triflora [11].

Anatomical context of ATS1


Associations of ATS1 with chemical compounds

  • The encoded PDAT protein is related to lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, which catalyzes the acyl-CoA-independent synthesis of cholesterol esters [6].
  • SCT and the other known SCPL acyltransferases all share the conserved serine, aspartic acid, and histidine residues employed for catalysis by classical serine carboxypeptidases, although the importance of these residues and the mechanism by which this class of SCPL proteins catalyze acyltransferase reactions is unknown [13].
  • Cellular sterol ester synthesis in plants is performed by an enzyme (phospholipid:sterol acyltransferase) different from the yeast and mammalian acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases [14].
  • Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) [15].
  • Anthocyanin aromatic acyltransferase catalyses the transfer of hydroxycinnamic acid moieties from their CoA esters to the glycosyl groups of anthocyanins [11].

Other interactions of ATS1

  • Sequence analysis of both genes showed that ATS1 is similar to the rice EFA27 gene and that ATS3 is unique [9].
  • Two novel embryo-specific genes designated ATS1 and ATS3 (Arabidopsis thaliana seed gene) were identified [9].
  • We describe here the identification of a bifunctional enzyme from this bacterium exhibiting acyl-CoA:fatty alcohol acyltransferase (wax ester synthase, WS) as well as acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity [1].
  • In addition to well-known genes involved in anthocyanin production, several genes with unidentified functions or annotated with putative functions, encoding putative glycosyltransferase, acyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, sugar transporters and transcription factors, were induced by PAP1 [16].


  1. A novel bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase mediates wax ester and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1. Kalscheuer, R., Steinbüchel, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Plastidial fatty acid signaling modulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense pathways in the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant. Kachroo, A., Lapchyk, L., Fukushige, H., Hildebrand, D., Klessig, D., Kachroo, P. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning of the SNG1 gene of Arabidopsis reveals a role for a serine carboxypeptidase-like protein as an acyltransferase in secondary metabolism. Lehfeldt, C., Shirley, A.M., Meyer, K., Ruegger, M.O., Cusumano, J.C., Viitanen, P.V., Strack, D., Chapple, C. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Modification of seed oil content and acyl composition in the brassicaceae by expression of a yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene. Zou, J., Katavic, V., Giblin, E.M., Barton, D.L., MacKenzie, S.L., Keller, W.A., Hu, X., Taylor, D.C. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Oleic acid levels regulated by glycerolipid metabolism modulate defense gene expression in Arabidopsis. Kachroo, A., Venugopal, S.C., Lapchyk, L., Falcone, D., Hildebrand, D., Kachroo, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: an enzyme that catalyzes the acyl-CoA-independent formation of triacylglycerol in yeast and plants. Dahlqvist, A., Stahl, U., Lenman, M., Banas, A., Lee, M., Sandager, L., Ronne, H., Stymne, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in acyl-ACP glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase. Xu, C., Yu, B., Cornish, A.J., Froehlich, J.E., Benning, C. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The gene and the RNA for the precursor to the plastid-located glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of Arabidopsis thaliana. Nishida, I., Tasaka, Y., Shiraishi, H., Murata, N. Plant Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. ATS1 and ATS3: two novel embryo-specific genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nuccio, M.L., Thomas, T.L. Plant Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Protein composition of oil bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype WS. Jolivet, P., Roux, E., D'Andrea, S., Davanture, M., Negroni, L., Zivy, M., Chardot, T. Plant Physiol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. cDNA cloning, gene expression and subcellular localization of anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase from Gentiana triflora. Fujiwara, H., Tanaka, Y., Yonekura-Sakakibara, K., Fukuchi-Mizutani, M., Nakao, M., Fukui, Y., Yamaguchi, M., Ashikari, T., Kusumi, T. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and functional characterization of a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Arabidopsis. Ståhl, U., Carlsson, A.S., Lenman, M., Dahlqvist, A., Huang, B., Banas, W., Banas, A., Stymne, S. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Biochemical characterization of sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase, a serine carboxypeptidase-like protein that functions as an acyltransferase in plant secondary metabolism. Shirley, A.M., Chapple, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Cellular sterol ester synthesis in plants is performed by an enzyme (phospholipid:sterol acyltransferase) different from the yeast and mammalian acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases. Banas, A., Carlsson, A.S., Huang, B., Lenman, M., Banas, W., Lee, M., Noiriel, A., Benveniste, P., Schaller, H., Bouvier-Navé, P., Stymne, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis. Lardizabal, K.D., Metz, J.G., Sakamoto, T., Hutton, W.C., Pollard, M.R., Lassner, M.W. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Functional genomics by integrated analysis of metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants over-expressing an MYB transcription factor. Tohge, T., Nishiyama, Y., Hirai, M.Y., Yano, M., Nakajima, J., Awazuhara, M., Inoue, E., Takahashi, H., Goodenowe, D.B., Kitayama, M., Noji, M., Yamazaki, M., Saito, K. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
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