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Gene Review

STM  -  homeobox protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: BUM, BUM1, BUMBERSHOOT, BUMBERSHOOT 1, F24O1.38, ...
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Disease relevance of STM


High impact information on STM


Biological context of STM


Anatomical context of STM

  • We have used a second-site suppressor screen to isolate mutations in KNAT1 and we show that KNAT1 is partially redundant with STM in regulating stem cell function [13].
  • The results showed that the C-terminal 10-amino acid region containing an SKL motif-like tripeptide (SHL) was not required for the import into peroxisomes [14].

Associations of STM with chemical compounds


Other interactions of STM

  • We demonstrate that KNAT6 contributes redundantly with STM to the maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and organ separation [6].
  • In this report, we examined the role of PNY, PNF and STM during development [17].
  • We show that stem cell specification by WUS does not require STM activity [8].
  • Genes required for STM expression, such as CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 and 2 (CUC1 and 2) were upregulated prior to shoot commitment [18].
  • Therefore, while STM appears to function in keeping central meristem cells undifferentiated, WUS and ZLL seem to be subsequently required for proper function of these cells [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STM


  1. KNAT1 induces lobed leaves with ectopic meristems when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Chuck, G., Lincoln, C., Hake, S. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Subdomains for transport via plasmodesmata corresponding to the apical-basal axis are established during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Kim, I., Kobayashi, K., Cho, E., Zambryski, P.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The Arabidopsis PHD-finger protein SHL is required for proper development and fertility. Müssig, C., Kauschmann, A., Clouse, S.D., Altmann, T. Mol. Gen. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. A member of the KNOTTED class of homeodomain proteins encoded by the STM gene of Arabidopsis. Long, J.A., Moan, E.I., Medford, J.I., Barton, M.K. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular analysis of the LATERAL SUPPRESSOR gene in Arabidopsis reveals a conserved control mechanism for axillary meristem formation. Greb, T., Clarenz, O., Schafer, E., Muller, D., Herrero, R., Schmitz, G., Theres, K. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. KNAT6: an Arabidopsis homeobox gene involved in meristem activity and organ separation. Belles-Boix, E., Hamant, O., Witiak, S.M., Morin, H., Traas, J., Pautot, V. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. A two-component enhancer-inhibitor transposon mutagenesis system for functional analysis of the Arabidopsis genome. Speulman, E., Metz, P.L., van Arkel, G., te Lintel Hekkert, B., Stiekema, W.J., Pereira, A. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The WUSCHEL and SHOOTMERISTEMLESS genes fulfil complementary roles in Arabidopsis shoot meristem regulation. Lenhard, M., Jürgens, G., Laux, T. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. CUC1 gene activates the expression of SAM-related genes to induce adventitious shoot formation. Hibara, K., Takada, S., Tasaka, M. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Combined SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and WUSCHEL trigger ectopic organogenesis in Arabidopsis. Gallois, J.L., Woodward, C., Reddy, G.V., Sablowski, R. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased steady state mRNA levels of the STM and KNAT1 homeobox genes in cytokinin overproducing Arabidopsis thaliana indicate a role for cytokinins in the shoot apical meristem. Rupp, H.M., Frank, M., Werner, T., Strnad, M., Schmülling, T. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Tumorous shoot development (TSD) genes are required for co-ordinated plant shoot development. Frank, M., Guivarc'h, A., Krupková, E., Lorenz-Meyer, I., Chriqui, D., Schmülling, T. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 reveals knox gene redundancy in Arabidopsis. Byrne, M.E., Simorowski, J., Martienssen, R.A. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of peroxisomal targeting signal of pumpkin catalase and the binding analysis with PTS1 receptor. Kamigaki, A., Mano, S., Terauchi, K., Nishi, Y., Tachibe-Kinoshita, Y., Nito, K., Kondo, M., Hayashi, M., Nishimura, M., Esaka, M. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Arabidopsis KNOXI proteins activate cytokinin biosynthesis. Yanai, O., Shani, E., Dolezal, K., Tarkowski, P., Sablowski, R., Sandberg, G., Samach, A., Ori, N. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. New pOp/LhG4 vectors for stringent glucocorticoid-dependent transgene expression in Arabidopsis. Craft, J., Samalova, M., Baroux, C., Townley, H., Martinez, A., Jepson, I., Tsiantis, M., Moore, I. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture requires the activities of KNOX-BELL homeodomain heterodimers. Kanrar, S., Onguka, O., Smith, H.M. Planta (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Developmental events and shoot apical meristem gene expression patterns during shoot development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cary, A.J., Che, P., Howell, S.H. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. The SHOOT MERISTEMLESS gene is required for maintenance of undifferentiated cells in Arabidopsis shoot and floral meristems and acts at a different regulatory level than the meristem genes WUSCHEL and ZWILLE. Endrizzi, K., Moussian, B., Haecker, A., Levin, J.Z., Laux, T. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression patterns of STM-like KNOX and Histone H4 genes in shoot development of the dissected-leaved basal eudicot plants Chelidonium majus and Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae). Groot, E.P., Sinha, N., Gleissberg, S. Plant Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Somatic embryogenesis from Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem mutants. Mordhorst, A.P., Hartog, M.V., El Tamer, M.K., Laux, T., de Vries, S.C. Planta (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Axillary meristem development in the branchless Zu-0 ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana. Kalinina, A., Mihajlović, N., Grbić, V. Planta (2002) [Pubmed]
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