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Gene Review

RAD16  -  DNA repair protein RAD16

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: ATP-dependent helicase RAD16, YBR0909, YBR114W
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Disease relevance of RAD16


High impact information on RAD16

  • Recently, we identified a stable subcomplex containing the yeast Rad7 and Rad16 proteins [2].
  • Here, we report the identification of autonomously replicating sequence binding factor 1 (ABF1) as a component of the Rad7/Rad16 NER subcomplex [2].
  • The Rad16 ATPase is important for NEF4 function in vivo, and genetic analysis uncovered new interactions between NEF4 and Rad23, a repair factor that links repair to proteasome function [3].
  • Rad16 contains a RING domain embedded within its ATPase domain, and the presence of these motifs in NEF4 suggested that NEF4 functions as both an ATPase and an E3 ubiquitin ligase [3].
  • This process may involve a unique protein complex which is distinct from the repairosome and which contains at least the Rad4, Rad7, and Rad16 proteins [4].

Biological context of RAD16

  • The RAD7 and RAD16 genes, which are essential for pyrimidine dimer removal from the silent mating type loci, are also required for repair of the nontranscribed strand of an active gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [5].
  • This gene has been identified as RAD16, a gene involved in the excision repair of DNA damage [6].
  • In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two of these proteins, Rad7 and Rad16, are specifically involved in the removal of lesions from transcriptionally silent regions of the genome in vivo [7].
  • Extracts prepared from rad7 or rad16 mutant cells are deficient, but not totally defective, in both oligonucleotide excision and repair synthesis of damaged plasmid DNA [7].
  • The role of RAD16 in the repair of HML alpha might be to change the chromatin structure of silenced genes to provide access for excision repair enzymes [8].

Anatomical context of RAD16


Associations of RAD16 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of RAD16

  • We have recently shown that Sgs1p interacts with the DNA repair Rad16p protein and is epistatic to Rad16p for UVC, 4-NQO and H2O2 lesions [10].
  • We previously isolated a stable heterotrimeric complex of Rad7/Rad16/Abf1 from yeast which functions in the conserved global genome repair (GGR) pathway [1].

Other interactions of RAD16

  • Additionally, interaction between the Rad7 and Rad16 proteins was demonstrated in vitro [4].
  • Finally, simultaneous deletion of RAD16, RAD26, and RPB9 resulted in no detectable repair in all sites along the region analyzed [11].
  • The RAD3, RAD10 and RAD16 genes of this group are not involved [12].
  • When the results obtained with the RPB2 gene can be generalized, the RAD7 and RAD16 proteins not only are essential for repair of silenced regions but also function in repair of nontranscribed strands of active genes in S. cerevisiae [5].
  • Furthermore, using a cdc9 mutant to trap incision intermediates, we demonstrate that rad7 and rad16 mutants are proficient in NER-dependent DNA incision in vivo [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RAD16


  1. The yeast Rad7/Rad16/Abf1 complex generates superhelical torsion in DNA that is required for nucleotide excision repair. Yu, S., Owen-Hughes, T., Friedberg, E.C., Waters, R., Reed, S.H. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Yeast autonomously replicating sequence binding factor is involved in nucleotide excision repair. Reed, S.H., Akiyama, M., Stillman, B., Friedberg, E.C. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The NEF4 complex regulates Rad4 levels and utilizes Snf2/Swi2-related ATPase activity for nucleotide excision repair. Ramsey, K.L., Smith, J.J., Dasgupta, A., Maqani, N., Grant, P., Auble, D.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The RAD7, RAD16, and RAD23 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: requirement for transcription-independent nucleotide excision repair in vitro and interactions between the gene products. Wang, Z., Wei, S., Reed, S.H., Wu, X., Svejstrup, J.Q., Feaver, W.J., Kornberg, R.D., Friedberg, E.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The RAD7 and RAD16 genes, which are essential for pyrimidine dimer removal from the silent mating type loci, are also required for repair of the nontranscribed strand of an active gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Verhage, R., Zeeman, A.M., de Groot, N., Gleig, F., Bang, D.D., van de Putte, P., Brouwer, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of RAD16, a yeast excision repair gene homologous to the recombinational repair gene RAD54 and to the SNF2 gene involved in transcriptional activation. Schild, D., Glassner, B.J., Mortimer, R.K., Carlson, M., Laurent, B.C. Yeast (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. The yeast RAD7 and RAD16 genes are required for postincision events during nucleotide excision repair. In vitro and in vivo studies with rad7 and rad16 mutants and purification of a Rad7/Rad16-containing protein complex. Reed, S.H., You, Z., Friedberg, E.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning of RAD16, a gene involved in differential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bang, D.D., Verhage, R., Goosen, N., Brouwer, J., van de Putte, P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Defective thymine dimer excision in radiation-sensitive mutants rad10 and rad16 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prakash, L. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Importance of the Sgs1 helicase activity in DNA repair of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saffi, J., Pereira, V.R., Henriques, J.A. Curr. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Dissecting transcription-coupled and global genomic repair in the chromatin of yeast GAL1-10 genes. Li, S., Smerdon, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. A complex pattern of sensitivity to simple monofunctional alkylating agents exists amongst the rad mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cooper, A.J., Waters, R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PSO5/RAD16 is involved in the regulation of DNA damage-inducible genes RNR2 and RNR3. Paesi-Toresan, S.O., Maris, A.F., Brendel, M., Henriques, J.A. Curr. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Gene PSO5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, involved in repair of oxidative DNA damage, is allelic to RAD16. Paesi-Toresan, S.O., Pich, C.T., Grey, M., Keszenman-Pereyra, D., Brendel, M., Henriques, J.A. Curr. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
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