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Gene Review

SSE2  -  adenyl-nucleotide exchange factor SSE2

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: HSP, Heat shock protein homolog SSE2, YBR1221, YBR169C
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Disease relevance of SSE2

  • This memory of a previous heat stress in mex67-5 cells could be explained if HSP mRNAs accumulated inside the nucleus during heat shock and were exported and translated in the cytoplasm on return to the permissive temperature [1].
  • The coding sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli as six-histidine tagged recombinant proteins and generated products with molecular masses of 86.1 kDa for HSP and 22.4 kDa for MnSOD [2].

High impact information on SSE2

  • However, transcriptional activation in vivo of promoter-lacZ fusions showed that the YIID delta 2-57 deletion affects the ability of certain promoters (CUP1 and an HSP UAS-CYC1 promoter hybrid promoter) to respond to upstream factor stimulation [3].
  • We postulate that this specific mutation in ZFYVE27 affects neuronal intracellular trafficking in the corticospinal tract, which is consistent with the pathology of HSP [4].
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is thought to be a homotypic trimer that is bound to the promoters of heat shock protein (HSP) genes at both normal and heat shock temperatures [5].
  • Strains carrying deletions in both the SSA1 and SSA2 HSP70 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes, including the inability to grow at 37 degrees C or higher, reduced growth rate at permissive temperatures, increased HSP gene expression, and constitutive thermotolerance [6].
  • Some heat shock protein (HSP) genes contain both heat shock elements (HSEs) and stress response elements (STREs), suggesting the involvement of both transcription factors in their regulation [7].

Biological context of SSE2

  • Isolation and characterization of SSE1 and SSE2, new members of the yeast HSP70 multigene family [8].
  • The promoter regions of HSP genes contain the HSF binding sequence called the heat shock element (HSE), which consists of contiguous inverted repeats of the sequence 5'-nGAAn-3' (where n is any nucleotide) [9].
  • The results have revealed that Hsf1 is necessary for heat-induced transcription of not only HSP but also genes encoding proteins involved in diverse cellular processes such as protein degradation, detoxification, energy generation, carbohydrate metabolism, and maintenance of cell wall integrity [9].
  • In this paper, we describe the requirement for and significance of a subset of HSP genes in yeast cell growth at moderate pressure and survival at extremely high pressure [10].
  • A genomic clone for the human heat shock protein (HSP) 70 gene located on chromosome 14 was isolated and sequenced [11].

Anatomical context of SSE2

  • When eukaryotic cells are exposed to environmental stress such as elevated temperature, the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSP) is stimulated [12].
  • We have used this method to show that, in response to heat shock, the plasma membrane acquires a novel heat-shock protein (HSP) and displays a decline in the levels of the abundant H+ translocating ATPase [13].

Associations of SSE2 with chemical compounds

  • The relationship of HSP synthesis and acidification of the cytoplasmic pH is dose-dependent under a variety of treatments (temperature increases (23-32 degrees C), addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (greater than 1 mM), sodium arsenite (greater than 3.75 X 10(-5) M) or sodium cyanide (greater than 10 mM] [14].
  • In strain C, there was a clear correlation between resistance to ethanol and acetaldehyde, the high induction of HSP genes by these compounds and its presence as the predominant strain in most levels of several soleras [15].
  • CHM blocks the antimutagenic effect of the HS treatment by inhibiting the inducible synthesis of HSP [16].
  • Mercury ions induced a set of three stress proteins, one of which corresponded in size to an HSP, and cadmium ions evoked one stress protein seemingly unrelated to the HSPs observed after temperature shift [17].

Other interactions of SSE2

  • SSE1 and SSE2 are thought to encode polypeptides of 693 aa with calculated M(r)'s of 77,408 and 77,619, respectively [8].
  • Notably, the loss of HSP genes other than HSP31 enhanced the survival rate by about fivefold at 125 MPa, suggesting that the cellular defensive system against high pressure could be strengthened upon the loss of the HSP genes [10].


  1. Mex67p mediates nuclear export of a variety of RNA polymerase II transcripts. Hurt, E., Strässer, K., Segref, A., Bailer, S., Schlaich, N., Presutti, C., Tollervey, D., Jansen, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning, expression and characterization of two new IgE-binding proteins from the yeast Malassezia sympodialis with sequence similarities to heat shock proteins and manganese superoxide dismutase. Andersson, A., Rasool, O., Schmidt, M., Kodzius, R., Flückiger, S., Zargari, A., Crameri, R., Scheynius, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Requirement for acidic amino acid residues immediately N-terminal to the conserved domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIID. Zhou, Q.A., Schmidt, M.C., Berk, A.J. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. ZFYVE27 (SPG33), a novel spastin-binding protein, is mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Mannan, A.U., Krawen, P., Sauter, S.M., Boehm, J., Chronowska, A., Paulus, W., Neesen, J., Engel, W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Dynamic association of transcriptional activation domains and regulatory regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock factor. Chen, T., Parker, C.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. A heat shock transcription factor with reduced activity suppresses a yeast HSP70 mutant. Halladay, J.T., Craig, E.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Hsf1p and Msn2/4p cooperate in the expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes HSP26 and HSP104 in a gene- and stress type-dependent manner. Amorós, M., Estruch, F. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and characterization of SSE1 and SSE2, new members of the yeast HSP70 multigene family. Mukai, H., Kuno, T., Tanaka, H., Hirata, D., Miyakawa, T., Tanaka, C. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of a novel class of target genes and a novel type of binding sequence of heat shock transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yamamoto, A., Mizukami, Y., Sakurai, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Systematic analysis of HSP gene expression and effects on cell growth and survival at high hydrostatic pressure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Miura, T., Minegishi, H., Usami, R., Abe, F. Extremophiles (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning, sequencing, and mapping of the human chromosome 14 heat shock protein gene (HSPA2). Bonnycastle, L.L., Yu, C.E., Hunt, C.R., Trask, B.J., Clancy, K.P., Weber, J.L., Patterson, D., Schellenberg, G.D. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. A 70 kDa microtubule-associated protein in NIL8 cells comigrates with the 70 kDa heat shock protein. Weller, N.K. Biol. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation of yeast plasma membranes. Panaretou, B., Piper, P. Methods Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. The cytoplasmic pH, ATP content and total protein synthesis rate during heat-shock protein inducing treatments in yeast. Weitzel, G., Pilatus, U., Rensing, L. Exp. Cell Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Correlation between acetaldehyde and ethanol resistance and expression of HSP genes in yeast strains isolated during the biological aging of sherry wines. Aranda, A., Querol, A., del Olmo, M. Arch. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. The mutagenic effect of elevated temperatures in yeast is blocked by a previous heat shock. Nunes, E., Candreva, E.C., Keszenman, D., Salvo, V.A. Mutat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Thermotolerance and the heat-shock response in Candida albicans. Zeuthen, M.L., Howard, D.H. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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