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Gene Review

SNF4  -  AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma, AMPK gamma, AMPK subunit gamma, CAT3, Regulatory protein CAT3, ...
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High impact information on SNF4

  • Loss-of-function mutations in the homologous gene in yeast (SNF4) cause defects in glucose metabolism, including glycogen storage [1].
  • We show that SNF4 binds to the SNF1 regulatory domain in low glucose, whereas in high glucose the regulatory domain binds to the kinase domain of SNF1 itself [2].
  • Increased dosage of the MSN3 gene restored invertase expression in snf4 mutants and also relieved glucose repression in the wild type [3].
  • On the other hand, expression of cNPK5 failed to suppress the growth defect of the snf4 mutant cells in the presence of sucrose and to induce expression of the SUC2 gene [4].
  • A 36-kilodalton SNF4 protein is predicted from the nucleotide sequence [5].

Biological context of SNF4


Anatomical context of SNF4


Associations of SNF4 with chemical compounds

  • The SNF1 protein kinase and the associated SNF4 protein are required for release of glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [12].
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulatory genes CAT1 and CAT3 constitute a positive control circuit necessary for derepression of gluconeogenic and disaccharide-utilizing enzymes [13].
  • Levels of transcripts of genes encoding catalase A, fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes and of the PAS1 gene are reduced in snf1 and snf4 mutants on ethanol as well as on oleic acid medium [11].
  • These genes were called CAT1, CAT3, and MUR1 and in a mutated form abolished maltose inhibition caused by mutant allele hex2-3 [14].
  • The synergistic positive regulatory roles for both the noncatalytic beta and gamma subunits of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase contrasts with the Snf1p kinase, where only heterodimers of Snf1p and Snf4p seem to be required for maximum kinase activity [15].

Regulatory relationships of SNF4


Other interactions of SNF4

  • To identify components of the SNF1 pathway, we isolated multicopy suppressors of defects caused by loss of SNF4, an activator of the SNF1 kinase [3].
  • Moreover, it suppressed Delta snf4 and Delta sip1,Delta sip2,Delta gal83 deficiencies [17].
  • These results indicate that SNF4 is required for the induction of SUC2 expression by NPK5, as by SNF1, even if NPK5 is constitutively active in S. cerevisiae [4].
  • Mode of action of the qcr9 and cat3 mutations in restoring the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tps1 mutants to grow on glucose [8].
  • Moreover, trans-acting factors like ADR1, SNF1 and SNF4, all involved in derepression of various cellular processes, have been demonstrated to affect transcriptional regulation of genes encoding peroxisomal proteins [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SNF4


  1. A mutation in PRKAG3 associated with excess glycogen content in pig skeletal muscle. Milan, D., Jeon, J.T., Looft, C., Amarger, V., Robic, A., Thelander, M., Rogel-Gaillard, C., Paul, S., Iannuccelli, N., Rask, L., Ronne, H., Lundström, K., Reinsch, N., Gellin, J., Kalm, E., Roy, P.L., Chardon, P., Andersson, L. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Glucose regulates protein interactions within the yeast SNF1 protein kinase complex. Jiang, R., Carlson, M. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Dosage-dependent modulation of glucose repression by MSN3 (STD1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hubbard, E.J., Jiang, R., Carlson, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of tobacco protein kinase NPK5, a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 that constitutively activates expression of the glucose-repressible SUC2 gene for a secreted invertase of S. cerevisiae. Muranaka, T., Banno, H., Machida, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular analysis of the SNF4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: evidence for physical association of the SNF4 protein with the SNF1 protein kinase. Celenza, J.L., Eng, F.J., Carlson, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of Snf1 kinase. Activation requires phosphorylation of threonine 210 by an upstream kinase as well as a distinct step mediated by the Snf4 subunit. McCartney, R.R., Schmidt, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation and expression analysis of two yeast regulatory genes involved in the derepression of glucose-repressible enzymes. Schüller, H.J., Entian, K.D. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Mode of action of the qcr9 and cat3 mutations in restoring the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tps1 mutants to grow on glucose. Blázquez, M.A., Gancedo, C. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Quantitation of the effects of disruption of catabolite (de)repression genes on the cell cycle behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aon, M.A., Cortassa, S. Curr. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Sip2, an N-myristoylated beta subunit of Snf1 kinase, regulates aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by affecting cellular histone kinase activity, recombination at rDNA loci, and silencing. Lin, S.S., Manchester, J.K., Gordon, J.I. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Control of peroxisome proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ADR1, SNF1 (CAT1, CCR1) and SNF4 (CAT3). Simon, M., Binder, M., Adam, G., Hartig, A., Ruis, H. Yeast (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Relationship of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway to the SNF1 protein kinase and invertase expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hubbard, E.J., Yang, X.L., Carlson, M. Genetics (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Extragenic suppressors of yeast glucose derepression mutants leading to constitutive synthesis of several glucose-repressible enzymes. Schüller, H.J., Entian, K.D. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. New genes involved in carbon catabolite repression and derepression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Entian, K.D., Zimmermann, F.K. J. Bacteriol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase activity by the noncatalytic beta and gamma subunits. Dyck, J.R., Gao, G., Widmer, J., Stapleton, D., Fernandez, C.S., Kemp, B.E., Witters, L.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence for the involvement of the Glc7-Reg1 phosphatase and the Snf1-Snf4 kinase in the regulation of INO1 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Shirra, M.K., Arndt, K.M. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional diversity of potato SNF1-related kinases tested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lovas, A., Sós-Hegedus, A., Bimbó, A., Bánfalvi, Z. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Peroxisome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kunau, W.H., Hartig, A. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Binding to Elongin C inhibits degradation of interacting proteins in yeast. Hyman, L.E., Kwon, E., Ghosh, S., McGee, J., Chachulska, A.M., Jackson, T., Baricos, W.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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