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Gene Review

RLM1  -  Rlm1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: LPG19C, Transcription factor RLM1, YPL089C
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High impact information on RLM1


Biological context of RLM1


Associations of RLM1 with chemical compounds

  • We found that catecholamines (l-3,4-hydroxyphenylalanine [l-dopa], dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline) elevate FUS1 and RLM1 transcription [4].
  • N-Acetyl-cysteine, a powerful antioxidant in yeast, completely reversed this effect, suggesting that FUS1 and RLM1 activation in response to catecholamines is a result of oxidative stress [4].
  • We also showed that the caffeine-induced phosphorylation of Mpk1p was accompanied by a negligible activation of its main downstream target, the Rlm1p transcription factor [7].
  • In contrast, the catalytic lysine of the ATP-binding domain of Mkp1 is necessary for both complementation function and interaction with Rlm1p [8].
  • The remaining two genes were up-regulated by doxycycline, suggesting that a transcription factor other than Rlm1 is involved in their response to disruption of FKS1 [9].

Physical interactions of RLM1


Enzymatic interactions of RLM1


Regulatory relationships of RLM1

  • These results suggest that Mpk1 regulates the transcriptional activity of Rlm1 by directly phosphorylating it [10].

Other interactions of RLM1

  • The third was a strong Rlm1p-mediated response which ran parallel in time with the Crz1p-regulated response [11].
  • To understand more about the coordination between signaling pathways, we used a "chemical genetic" approach, searching for compounds that would activate the pheromone-responsive gene FUS1 and RLM1, a reporter for the cell integrity pathway [4].
  • Three of the five genes were not up-regulated by doxycycline, indicating that Rlm1 mediates their up-regulation when FKS1 is inactivated [9].
  • Like MEF2A, the yeast proteins Rlm1 and Smp1 exhibit low DNA bending propensities [12].
  • Phenotypic analysis of a yeast mutant that expresses a mutant Hsp90 (T22Ihsp82) revealed that Hsp90 function is essential for this (Y-P,T-P)Slt2p to activate one of its downstream targets, the Rlm1p transcription factor [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RLM1

  • Further genetic analysis combined with immunoblotting revealed that Kss1, one of the mating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Mpk1, an MAPK of the cell integrity pathway, participated in l-dopa-induced stimulation of FUS1 and RLM1 transcription [4].


  1. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS-box transcription factor Rlm1 is a target for the Mpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Dodou, E., Treisman, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Yeast RLM1 encodes a serum response factor-like protein that may function downstream of the Mpk1 (Slt2) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Watanabe, Y., Irie, K., Matsumoto, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. The global transcriptional response to transient cell wall damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its regulation by the cell integrity signaling pathway. García, R., Bermejo, C., Grau, C., Pérez, R., Rodríguez-Peña, J.M., Francois, J., Nombela, C., Arroyo, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Oxidative stress activates FUS1 and RLM1 transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an oxidant-dependent Manner. Staleva, L., Hall, A., Orlow, S.J. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of the yeast Rlm1 transcription factor by the Mpk1 cell wall integrity MAP kinase. Jung, U.S., Sobering, A.K., Romeo, M.J., Levin, D.E. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. The Aspergillus niger MADS-box transcription factor RlmA is required for cell wall reinforcement in response to cell wall stress. Damveld, R.A., Arentshorst, M., Franken, A., vanKuyk, P.A., Klis, F.M., van den Hondel, C.A., Ram, A.F. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Investigating the caffeine effects in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae brings new insights into the connection between TOR, PKC and Ras/cAMP signalling pathways. Kuranda, K., Leberre, V., Sokol, S., Palamarczyk, G., François, J. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Mkp1 of Pneumocystis carinii associates with the yeast transcription factor Rlm1 via a mechanism independent of the activation state. Fox, D., Smulian, A.G. Cell. Signal. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Up-regulation of genes encoding glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-attached proteins in response to cell wall damage caused by disruption of FKS1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Terashima, H., Yabuki, N., Arisawa, M., Hamada, K., Kitada, K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of a serum response factor-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rlm1, which has transcriptional activity regulated by the Mpk1 (Slt2) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Watanabe, Y., Takaesu, G., Hagiwara, M., Irie, K., Matsumoto, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the plasma membrane-perturbing compound chitosan. Zakrzewska, A., Boorsma, A., Brul, S., Hellingwerf, K.J., Klis, F.M. Eukaryotic Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. MADS-box transcription factors adopt alternative mechanisms for bending DNA. West, A.G., Sharrocks, A.D. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. A two-hybrid screen of the yeast proteome for Hsp90 interactors uncovers a novel Hsp90 chaperone requirement in the activity of a stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase, Slt2p (Mpk1p). Millson, S.H., Truman, A.W., King, V., Prodromou, C., Pearl, L.H., Piper, P.W. Eukaryotic Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
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