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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Flocculation

  • Latex agglutination and counterelectrophoresis were equally good methods for the diagnosis of trichinosis and were more sensitive than the bentonite flocculation test [1].
  • The effect of various commercial barium sulfate preparations on blood coagulation, flocculation, and hemolysis was studied [2].
  • Genetic complementation of a spontaneous mutant, impaired in flocculation, Congo red binding, and colonization of root surface, led to the identification of a new regulatory gene in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, designated flcA [3].
  • The prozone phenomenon, seen during primary and secondary syphilis, occurs because a higher than optimal amount of antibody in the tested sera prevents the flocculation reaction typifying a positive result in reagin tests [4].
  • The presence of relatively high concentrations of sorbitol in the suspensions resulted in flocculation due to dehydration of surfactant polyoxyethylene groups (reflected by the cloud point) [5].

High impact information on Flocculation


Chemical compound and disease context of Flocculation


Biological context of Flocculation


Anatomical context of Flocculation


Associations of Flocculation with chemical compounds

  • Its flocculation can be reversed by the addition of galactose [9].
  • The blocking factor was shown to be RF by serial dilutions of IgM-RF resulting in inverse correlations with latex flocculation and inhibition of SRBC binding, absorption of blocking from IgM-RF with insolubilized AggHuIgG, and failure of IgM-control to block binding [24].
  • In all cases, the agglutination and the flocculation induced by one of these two lectins were inhibited by free or conjugated N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or by free or conjugated D-galactose, respectively [9].
  • Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH [25].
  • Adsorbed ethanol may induce flocculation by reducing the electrostatic repulsion between cells, by decreasing steric stabilization, and/or by allowing the protrusion of polymer chains into the liquid phase [26].

Gene context of Flocculation

  • The 5' upstream regions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae glucoamylase-encoding genes STA1 to -3 and of the MUC1 (or FLO11) gene, which is critical for pseudohyphal development, invasive growth, and flocculation, are almost identical, and the genes are coregulated to a large extent [27].
  • We propose that the SFL1 gene product may be a transcription factor which is involved in regulation of the gene(s) related to yeast flocculation [28].
  • Northern analysis showed that DNA from the flocculation gene FLO1 hybridized to mRNA molecules of 4.8 kb [29].
  • The sequencing of a 6619 bp region encoding for a flocculation gene previously cloned from a strain defined as FLO5 (Bidard et al., 1994) has revealed that it was a FLO1 gene [30].
  • Based on these results, a model for the role of MIG1 in flocculation gene regulation is proposed [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flocculation

  • Results obtained by turbidimetry indicated that formulated ditekiren did not cause aggregation of human platelets or flocculation of proteins at concentrations approaching the solubility limit of the drug in plasma [32].
  • In this study, ferric chloride (FeCl(3)) flocculation was used as a pretreatment to ultrafiltration (UF) in treating synthetic wastewater containing synthetic organic matter (SOM) [33].
  • Chitosan was extracted from squid pens and assessed for composition, rheology, flocculation, film formation and antimicrobial properties [34].
  • Experiments were performed to evaluate temporal changes in the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during flocculation of an initially monodisperse suspension of latex microspheres [35].
  • Water samples were collected at the lake, the inlet to the waterworks, after each of the flocculation basins (Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3), after rapid filtration and from the municipal distribution network [36].


  1. An epidemic of trichinosis after ingestion of wild pig in Hawaii. Barrett-Connor, E., Davis, C.F., Hamburger, R.N., Kagan, I. J. Infect. Dis. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. The effect of barium on blood in the gastrointestinal tract. Miller, R.E., Skucas, J., Violante, M.R., Shapiro, M.E. Radiology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. A transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-UhpA family, FlcA, controls flocculation and wheat root surface colonization by Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. Pereg-Gerk, L., Paquelin, A., Gounon, P., Kennedy, I.R., Elmerich, C. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. False-negative syphilis screening: the prozone phenomenon, nonimmune hydrops, and diagnosis of syphilis during pregnancy. Berkowitz, K., Baxi, L., Fox, H.E. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Flocculation of suspensions containing nonionic surfactants by sorbitol. Zatz, J.L., Lue, R.Y. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Antagonistic remodelling by Swi-Snf and Tup1-Ssn6 of an extensive chromatin region forms the background for FLO1 gene regulation. Fleming, A.B., Pennings, S. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. A Saccharomyces gene family involved in invasive growth, cell-cell adhesion, and mating. Guo, B., Styles, C.A., Feng, Q., Fink, G.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Dimeric ristocetin flocculates proteins, binds to platelets, and mediates von Willebrand factor-dependent agglutination of platelets. Scott, J.P., Montgomery, R.R., Retzinger, G.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Kluyveromyces bulgaricus yeast lectins. Isolation of N-acetylglucosamine and galactose-specific lectins: their relation with flocculation. Al-Mahmood, S., Giummelly, P., Bonaly, R., Delmotte, F., Monsigny, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence for interfacial uptake in hexadecane degradation by Rhodococcus equi: the importance of cell flocculation. Bouchez-Naïtali, M., Blanchet, D., Bardin, V., Vandecasteele, J.P. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Large liposome agglutination technique for the serological detection of syphilis. Kung, V.T., Vollmer, Y.P., Martin, F.J. J. Immunol. Methods (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Selective flocculation with chitosan in Escherichia coli disintegrates: effects of pH and nuclease treatment. Agerkvist, I., Eriksson, L., Enfors, S.O. Enzyme Microb. Technol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of sludge type on poliovirus association with and recovery from sludge solids. Pancorbo, O.C., Scheuerman, P.R., Farrah, S.R., Bitton, G. Can. J. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of protection and repair of injury of mitochondrial membrane-phospholipid on prognosis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Ma, A., Zhang, W., Liu, Z. Blood pressure. Supplement. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Glycosylation deficiency phenotypes resulting from depletion of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase in two yeast species. Warit, S., Zhang, N., Short, A., Walmsley, R.M., Oliver, S.G., Stateva, L.I. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. The yeast SFL2 gene may be necessary for mating-type control. Fujita, A., Misumi, Y., Ikehara, Y., Kobayashi, H. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. FLO11, a yeast gene related to the STA genes, encodes a novel cell surface flocculin. Lo, W.S., Dranginis, A.M. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Flocculation behavior of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum in degrading pentachlorophenol at different life stages. Chang, Y.I., Su, C.Y. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Aquaporin in Candida: characterization of a functional water channel protein. Carbrey, J.M., Cormack, B.P., Agre, P. Yeast (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Candida albicans Als1p: an adhesin that is a downstream effector of the EFG1 filamentation pathway. Fu, Y., Ibrahim, A.S., Sheppard, D.C., Chen, Y.C., French, S.W., Cutler, J.E., Filler, S.G., Edwards, J.E. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Experimental collision efficiencies of polymer-flocculated animal cells. Aunins, J.G., Wang, D.I. Biotechnol. Prog. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Early detection and signs of hepatoangiosarcoma among vinyl chloride workers. Sugita, M., Masuda, Y., Tsuchiya, K. Am. J. Ind. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Seasonal change in the number of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water samples from the rivers in Hokkaido, Japan, detected by the ferric sulfate flocculation method. Tsushima, Y., Karanis, P., Kamada, T., Makala, L., Xuan, X., Tohya, Y., Akashi, H., Nagasawa, H. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Rheumatoid factor inhibition of in vitro binding of IgG complexes in the human glomerulus. Bolton, W.K., Schrock, J.H., Davis, J.S. Arthritis Rheum. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH. Johnsson, M., Wagenaar, A., Engberts, J.B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanisms of yeast flocculation: comparison of top- and bottom-fermenting strains. Dengis, P.B., Nélissen, L.R., Rouxhet, P.G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Divergent regulation of the evolutionarily closely related promoters of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae STA2 and MUC1 genes. Gagiano, M., Van Dyk, D., Bauer, F.F., Lambrechts, M.G., Pretorius, I.S. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Domains of the SFL1 protein of yeasts are homologous to Myc oncoproteins or yeast heat-shock transcription factor. Fujita, A., Kikuchi, Y., Kuhara, S., Misumi, Y., Matsumoto, S., Kobayashi, H. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Transcriptional regulation of flocculation genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Teunissen, A.W., van den Berg, J.A., Steensma, H.Y. Yeast (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 flocculation gene encodes for a cell surface protein. Bidard, F., Bony, M., Blondin, B., Dequin, S., Barre, P. Yeast (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. MIG1 overexpression causes flocculation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Shankar, C.S., Ramakrishnan, M.S., Umesh-Kumar, S. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. In vitro evaluation of the plasma and blood compatibility of a parenteral formulation for ditekiren, a novel renin inhibitor pseudopeptide. Greenfield, J.C., Loux, S.J., Sood, V.K., Jenkins, K.M., Davio, S.R. Pharm. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Is semi-flocculation effective as pretreatment to ultrafiltration in wastewater treatment? Shon, H.K., Vigneswaran, S., Ngo, H.H., Ben Aim, R. Water Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Chitosan functional properties. Shepherd, R., Reader, S., Falshaw, A. Glycoconj. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Changes in fractal dimension during aggregation. Chakraborti, R.K., Gardner, K.H., Atkinson, J.F., Van Benschoten, J.E. Water Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks. Gäfvert, T., Ellmark, C., Holm, E. Journal of environmental radioactivity. (2002) [Pubmed]
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