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Gene Review

ATH1  -  alpha,alpha-trehalase ATH1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Alpha,alpha-trehalase, Alpha,alpha-trehalose glucohydrolase, Vacuolar acid trehalase, YP9367.06, YPR026W
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Disease relevance of ATH1

  • Characterization of the treA gene encoding this trehalase shows that it is homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar acid trehalase, the product of the ATH1 gene, and to two related proteins of unknown function identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae [1].
  • Disruption of the yeast ATH1 gene confers better survival after dehydration, freezing, and ethanol shock: potential commercial applications [2].

High impact information on ATH1

  • After screening a Candida albicans genome data base, the product of an open reading frame (IPF 19760/CA2574) with 41% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar acid trehalase (Ath1p) was identified and named Atc1p [3].
  • By using an adaptation of the assay of invertase on whole cells with NaF, we showed that more than 90% of the activity of Ath1p is extracellular, splitting of the disaccharide into glucose [4].
  • However, the molecular mechanism by which extracellular trehalose can be transported to the vacuole and degraded by the acid trehalase Ath1p is not clear [4].
  • To retain the accumulation of trehalose in yeast cells, we constructed, for the first time, diploid homozygous neutral trehalase mutants (Deltanth1), acid trehalase mutants (Deltaath1), and double mutants (Deltanth1 ath1) by using commercial baker's yeast strains as the parent strains and the gene disruption method [5].
  • Yeast strains disrupted for ATH1, which encodes vacuolar acid trehalase, have been reported to grow to higher cell densities than reference strains [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of ATH1


Biological context of ATH1


Associations of ATH1 with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ATH1

  • In conclusion, disruption of ATH1 by genetic engineering apparently does not promote the survival of viable cells and DNA in natural environments [11].


  1. Molecular characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans treA gene encoding an acid trehalase required for growth on trehalose. d'Enfert, C., Fontaine, T. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Disruption of the yeast ATH1 gene confers better survival after dehydration, freezing, and ethanol shock: potential commercial applications. Kim, J., Alizadeh, P., Harding, T., Hefner-Gravink, A., Klionsky, D.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. The ATC1 gene encodes a cell wall-linked acid trehalase required for growth on trehalose in Candida albicans. Pedreño, Y., Maicas, S., Argüelles, J.C., Sentandreu, R., Valentin, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Two distinct pathways for trehalose assimilation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Jules, M., Guillou, V., François, J., Parrou, J.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Stress tolerance in doughs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae trehalase mutants derived from commercial Baker's yeast. Shima, J., Hino, A., Yamada-Iyo, C., Suzuki, Y., Nakajima, R., Watanabe, H., Mori, K., Takano, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Elevated growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATH1 null mutants on glucose is an artifact of nonmatching auxotrophies of mutant and reference strains. Chopra, R., Sharma, V.M., Ganesan, K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Deletion of the ATH1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents growth on trehalose. Nwaka, S., Mechler, B., Holzer, H. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Response to oxidative stress caused by H(2)O(2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants deficient in trehalase genes. Pedreño, Y., Gimeno-Alcañiz, J.V., Matallana, E., Argüelles, J.C. Arch. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel yeast gene, ATH1, that is required for vacuolar acid trehalase activity. Destruelle, M., Holzer, H., Klionsky, D.J. Yeast (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Antisense-mediated inhibition of acid trehalase (ATH1) gene expression promotes ethanol fermentation and tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Jung, Y.J., Park, H.D. Biotechnol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Survival of genetically modified and self-cloned strains of commercial baker's yeast in simulated natural environments: environmental risk assessment. Ando, A., Suzuki, C., Shima, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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