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Gene Review

phoP  -  response regulator in two-component...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK1116, JW1116
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Disease relevance of phoP

  • Both E. coli and S. typhimurium phoP mutants were more sensitive than their isogenic wild-type strains to the frog-derived antibacterial peptide magainin 2, suggesting a role for PhoP in the response to various stresses in both enteric species [1].
  • We hypothesized that Salmonella phoP-activated genes, which are transcriptionally activated within antigen-processing macrophages, could prove useful for delivery of heterologous antigens to the immune system [2].
  • Strain ATCC14028 releases a lambdoid phage, named Gifsy-3, which contains the phoP/phoQ-activated pagJ gene and the gene for the secreted leucine-rich repeat protein SspH1 [3].

High impact information on phoP


Biological context of phoP

  • Analysis of a phoP-lacZ promoter fusion showed that the phoPR operon is hyperinduced in a spo0A mutant strain, suggesting that Spo0A approximately P represses APases by repressing phoPR transcription [7].
  • Molecular genetic analysis of the Escherichia coli phoP locus [1].
  • The phoP gene was mapped to kilobase 1202 on the Kohara map (25-min region) of the E. coli genome (Y. Kohara, K. Akiyama, and K. Isono, Cell 50:495-508, 1987) and found to be transcribed in a counterclockwise direction [1].
  • The phoP-phoQ operon was mapped at 25 min on the standard E. coli linkage map by hybridization with the Kohara mini set library of the E. coli chromosome (Y. Kohara, K. Akiyama, and K. Isono, Cell 50:495-508, 1987) [8].

Anatomical context of phoP

  • Macrophages also processed phoP S. typhimurium strains with greater efficiency for peptide presentation by I-Ak than wild type bacteria while Salmonella constitutively expressing phoP were processed for peptide presentation by I-Ak less efficiently than wild type Salmonella [9].

Other interactions of phoP

  • The mRNA levels of W3110 in the presence of 30 mM MgCl(2), WP3022 (phoP defective), and WQ3007 (phoQ defective) were compared with those of W3110 in the absence of MgCl(2) [10].


  1. Molecular genetic analysis of the Escherichia coli phoP locus. Groisman, E.A., Heffron, F., Solomon, F. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Macrophage-inducible expression of a model antigen in Salmonella typhimurium enhances immunogenicity. Hohmann, E.L., Oletta, C.A., Loomis, W.P., Miller, S.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Variable assortment of prophages provides a transferable repertoire of pathogenic determinants in Salmonella. Figueroa-Bossi, N., Uzzau, S., Maloriol, D., Bossi, L. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The PhoP/PhoQ two-component system stabilizes the alternative sigma factor RpoS in Salmonella enterica. Tu, X., Latifi, T., Bougdour, A., Gottesman, S., Groisman, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Salmonella typhimurium phoP virulence gene is a transcriptional regulator. Groisman, E.A., Chiao, E., Lipps, C.J., Heffron, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Mouse paneth cell secretory responses to cell surface glycolipids of virulent and attenuated pathogenic bacteria. Tanabe, H., Ayabe, T., Bainbridge, B., Guina, T., Ernst, R.K., Darveau, R.P., Miller, S.I., Ouellette, A.J. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Sequential action of two-component genetic switches regulates the PHO regulon in Bacillus subtilis. Hulett, F.M., Lee, J., Shi, L., Sun, G., Chesnut, R., Sharkova, E., Duggan, M.F., Kapp, N. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular analysis of the Escherichia coli phoP-phoQ operon. Kasahara, M., Nakata, A., Shinagawa, H. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Bacterial antigen delivery systems: phagocytic processing of bacterial antigens for MHC-I and MHC-II presentation to T cells. Svensson, M., Pfeifer, J., Stockinger, B., Wick, M.J. Behring Inst. Mitt. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification and molecular characterization of the Mg2+ stimulon of Escherichia coli. Minagawa, S., Ogasawara, H., Kato, A., Yamamoto, K., Eguchi, Y., Oshima, T., Mori, H., Ishihama, A., Utsumi, R. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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