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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ancylostomatoidea


High impact information on Ancylostomatoidea

  • Subsequently, development of larvae into egg-laying adult hookworms (patency) coincided with a switch to Th2 predominant responses (interleukin-4 [IL-4]) as well as a marked increase in IL-10 production [3].
  • Sequence heterogeneity in a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (pcox1) was measured for the hookworms, Ancylostoma caninum from Australia, A. duodenale from China, and Necator americanus from China and Togo using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis combined with DNA sequencing [4].
  • Activity against hookworms has been demonstrated for levamisole but the most effective treatment regimen has not been determined [5].
  • Our primary findings were as follows: 1) In children <30 mo old, hemoglobin was associated with malaria but not hookworms, whereas in children >/=30 mo, hemoglobin was related to hookworms but not malaria [6].
  • Annual ratios revealed geographic variations: for example, hookworms in dogs and cats in the southeast ranged from 12.3 to 9.4 cs/Crv; in the northern Great Plains, hookworms ranged from 0.9 to 0.4 cs/Crv [7].

Associations of Ancylostomatoidea with chemical compounds

  • Ivermectin was ineffective against hookworms, while albendazole resulted in a cure rate of 98% [8].
  • The aim of this study was to adapt, refine, and evaluate the Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) test, which has been used for veterinary nematodes, for field testing of benzimidazole (BZ) susceptibility/resistance in human hookworms [9].
  • Recently two major anticoagulant serine protease inhibitors have been identified and cloned from adult Ancylostoma caninum hookworms [10].
  • Ancylostoma hookworms secrete potent anticoagulants, which have been shown to target coagulation factors Xa and the factor VIIa/Tissue Factor complex, respectively [11].
  • Rabbit antisera raised against recombinant AcCP-1 reacted with esophageal, amphidial and excretory glands in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections of both male and female adult hookworms, and with an antigen of approx. 40 kDa in Western blot analysis of excretory/secretory products from adult hookworms [12].

Gene context of Ancylostomatoidea

  • The difference between mean CD8 percentages and absolutes in hookworms patients and controls were not significant [13].
  • We have also reported the gene sequences of novel cathepsin B-like proteinases from hookworms, but have been unable to locate cathepsin L-like genes that could account for the presence of the cathepsin L activity in these parasites [14].
  • Previously, we have reported that hookworms secrete cysteine proteinase activity that is capable of cleaving the cathepsin L-specific substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC [14].
  • This is the first report of a full-length cDNA encoding a lectin from hookworms [15].
  • To overcome limitations in the morphological identification of different developmental stages of hookworms to species, we have established a polymerase chain reaction-linked single strand conformation polymorphism technique (PCR-SSCP) utilizing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of ribosomal (r)DNA [16].


  1. Use of febantel or ivermectin for treatment of calves with experimentally induced Bunostomum phlebotomum infection. Yazwinski, T.A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Adverse metabolic effects of antiparasitic drugs. Katz, M. Rev. Infect. Dis. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Host cytokine production, lymphoproliferation, and antibody responses during the course of Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection in the Golden Syrian hamster. Mendez, S., Valenzuela, J.G., Wu, W., Hotez, P.J. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Single-strand conformation polymorphism-based analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 reveals significant substructuring in hookworm populations. Hu, M., Chilton, N.B., Zhu, X., Gasser, R.B. Electrophoresis (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Use of levamisole in parasitic infections. Miller, M.J. Drugs (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Malaria, hookworms and recent fever are related to anemia and iron status indicators in 0- to 5-y old Zanzibari children and these relationships change with age. Stoltzfus, R.J., Chwaya, H.M., Montresor, A., Albonico, M., Savioli, L., Tielsch, J.M. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Occurrence and impact of zoonoses in pet dogs and cats at US Air Force bases. Warner, R.D. American journal of public health. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. A comparative trial of a single-dose ivermectin versus three days of albendazole for treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis and other soil-transmitted helminth infections in children. Marti, H., Haji, H.J., Savioli, L., Chwaya, H.M., Mgeni, A.F., Ameir, J.S., Hatz, C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of the egg hatch assay for detection of anthelminthic resistance in human hookworms. Albonico, M., Wright, V., Ramsan, M., Haji, H.J., Taylor, M., Savioli, L., Bickle, Q. Int. J. Parasitol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide-5: immunolocalization and in vitro neutralization of a major hookworm anti-thrombotic. Harrison, L.M., Córdova, J.L., Cappello, M. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Ancylostoma ceylanicum anticoagulant peptide-1: role of the predicted reactive site amino acid in mediating inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and VIIa. Mieszczanek, J., Harrison, L.M., Cappello, M. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization and localization of cathepsin B proteinases expressed by adult Ancylostoma caninum hookworms. Harrop, S.A., Sawangjaroen, N., Prociv, P., Brindley, P.J. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with hookworm infection in Zaria, Nigeria. Onyemelukwe, G.C., Musa, B.O. African journal of medicine and medical sciences. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Structural analysis of the catalytic site of AcCP-1, a cysteine proteinase secreted by the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. Brinkworth, R.I., Brindley, P.J., Harrop, S.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Na-ctl-2, a cDNA encoding a C-type lectin expressed exclusively in adult Necator americanus hookworms. Loukas, A., Brown, A.P., Pritchard, D.I. DNA Seq. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. A mutation scanning approach for the identification of hookworm species and analysis of population variation. Gasser, R.B., Monti, J.R., Bao-Zhen, Q., Polderman, A.M., Nansen, P., Chilton, N.B. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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