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Chemical Compound Review

levamisole     (7R)-7-phenyl-4-thia-1,6...

Synonyms: Tramisol, Wormicid, LEVOMYSOL, Lepuron, Levamisol, ...
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Disease relevance of levamisole


Psychiatry related information on levamisole


High impact information on levamisole


Chemical compound and disease context of levamisole


Biological context of levamisole


Anatomical context of levamisole


Associations of levamisole with other chemical compounds

  • In vitro run-on transcription revealed that 5-FU caused a 20%-57% reduction in RNA synthesis, while levamisole caused a 30%-190% increase in RNA synthesis [21].
  • Lymphocyte subsets in measles. Depressed helper/inducer subpopulation reversed by in vitro treatment with levamisole and ascorbic acid [23].
  • The effect was then compared to that elicited by theophylline or levamisole, which both demonstrated thymosin-like action in vitro [24].
  • To identify nAChR accessory proteins, which may regulate their expression or function, we performed tandem affinity purification of the levamisole-sensitive nAChR from Caenorhabditis elegans, mass spectrometry of associated components, and RNAi-based screening for effects on in vivo nicotine sensitivity [25].
  • Experimental treatment consisted of one of three chemotherapy regimens: the low-dose leucovorin plus FU (Mayo Clinic; LDLV) regimen, the high-dose leucovorin plus FU (Roswell Park; HDLV) regimen, and the low-dose leucovorin plus levamisole plus FU (LDLV plus LEV) regimen, each administered for 30 to 32 weeks [26].

Gene context of levamisole

  • We show that three of the eleven genes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that mediate resistance to the nematocide levamisole and to other cholinergic agonists encode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits. unc-38 encodes an alpha subunit while lev-1 and unc-29 encode non-alpha subunits [27].
  • In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a genetic screen for levamisole resistance has identified 12 genes, three of which (unc-38, unc-29, and lev-1) encode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits [28].
  • Genetic ablation of both the levamisole-sensitive receptor and acr-16 abolished all cholinergic synaptic currents at the NMJ and severely impaired C. elegans locomotion [29].
  • In addition, since expression of functional unc-29 in muscle cells restored levamisole sensitivity under some but not all conditions, both neuronal and muscle cell UNC-29 receptors are likely to contribute to the regulation of egg-laying behavior [30].
  • This study examined the effect of levamisole on PGE(2) production and COX-2 gene activation in immortalized human colon cells [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of levamisole


  1. Adjuvant therapy for colon cancer. Macdonald, J.S. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. A randomized trial of levamisole versus placebo as adjuvant therapy in malignant melanoma. Spitler, L.E., Sagebiel, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of levamisole in Hodgkin's disease. Berényi, E., Sonkoly, I., Kávai, M., Szabolcsi, M., Szegedi, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Levamisole and fluorouracil for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma. Moertel, C.G., Fleming, T.R., Macdonald, J.S., Haller, D.G., Laurie, J.A., Goodman, P.J., Ungerleider, J.S., Emerson, W.A., Tormey, D.C., Glick, J.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Letter: Levamisole in sarcoidosis. Rosenthal, M., Trabert, U., Müller, W., Müller, S., Wurm, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Levamisole inhibits sequestration of infected red blood cells in patients with falciparum malaria. Dondorp, A.M., Silamut, K., Charunwatthana, P., Chuasuwanchai, S., Ruangveerayut, R., Krintratun, S., White, N.J., Ho, M., Day, N.P. J. Infect. Dis. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhanced host defense mechanisms with levamisole in suckling rats. Fischer, G.W., Podgore, J.K., Bass, J.W., Kelley, J.L., Kobayaski, G.Y. J. Infect. Dis. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Levamisole in Job's syndrome. Swim, A.T., Bradac, C., Craddock, P.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Levamisole in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Cobb, W.E., Molitch, M., Reichlin, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of levamisole on E-rosette-forming cells in vivo and in vitro in Hodgkin's disease. Ramot, B., Biniaminov, M., Shoham, C., Rosenthal, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Levamisol in psoriatic arthritis. Rosenthal, M., Trabert, U. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular predictors of survival after adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Watanabe, T., Wu, T.T., Catalano, P.J., Ueki, T., Satriano, R., Haller, D.G., Benson, A.B., Hamilton, S.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of immunomodulators on effector cells involved in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: Brief communication. Tagliabue, A., Mantovani, A., Polentarutti, N., Vecchi, A., Spreafico, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of Corynebacterium parvum, methanol-extraction residue of BCG, and levamisole on macrophage random migration, chemotaxis, and pinocytosis. Sher, N.A., Poplack, D.G., Blaese, R.M., Brown, T.M., Chaparas, S.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Chemotherapy of onchocerciasis: a controlled comparison of mebendazole, levamisole, and diethylcarbamazine. Rivas-Alcalá, A.R., Greene, B.M., Taylor, H.R., Domíguez-Vázquez, A., Ruvalcaba-Macías, A.M., Lugo-Pfeiffer, C., Mackenzie, C.D., Beltrán, F. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparative antitumor effects of Corynebacterium parvum, Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, and levamisole alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide in the CaD2 murine mammary adenocarcinoma system. Purnell, D.M., Bartlett, G.L., Kreider, J.W., Biro, T.G., Kontra, J. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Acute effects of orally administered levamisole on random monocyte motility and chemotaxis in man. Nathanson, S.D., Zamfirescu, P.L., Portaro, J.K., deKernion, J.B., Fahey, J.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of levamisole on in vivo and in vitro murine host response to syngeneic transplantable tumor. Fidler, I.J., Spitler, L.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Levamisole effects on major histocompatibility complex and adhesion molecule expression and on myeloid cell adhesion to human colon tumor cell lines. Kimball, E.S., Fisher, M.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of levamisole on normal and abnormal leukocyte locomotion. Wright, D.G., Kirkpatrick, C.H., Gallin, J.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Mechanism of synergy of levamisole and fluorouracil: induction of human leukocyte antigen class I in a colorectal cancer cell line. AbdAlla, E.E., Blair, G.E., Jones, R.A., Sue-Ling, H.M., Johnston, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of levamisole on normal and malignant murine lymphocytes. Gordon, W.C., Prager, M.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Lymphocyte subsets in measles. Depressed helper/inducer subpopulation reversed by in vitro treatment with levamisole and ascorbic acid. Joffe, M.I., Sukha, N.R., Rabson, A.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Decrease of tumor growth in mice after intravenous thymosin-treated bone marrow cell injection. Cupissol, D., Rey, A., Goldstein, A.L., Serrou, B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification and characterization of novel nicotinic receptor-associated proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. Gottschalk, A., Almedom, R.B., Schedletzky, T., Anderson, S.D., Yates, J.R., Schafer, W.R. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Phase III study of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and levamisole in high-risk stage II and III colon cancer: final report of Intergroup 0089. Haller, D.G., Catalano, P.J., Macdonald, J.S., O'Rourke, M.A., Frontiera, M.S., Jackson, D.V., Mayer, R.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Caenorhabditis elegans levamisole resistance genes lev-1, unc-29, and unc-38 encode functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. Fleming, J.T., Squire, M.D., Barnes, T.M., Tornoe, C., Matsuda, K., Ahnn, J., Fire, A., Sulston, J.E., Barnard, E.A., Sattelle, D.B., Lewis, J.A. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. Culetto, E., Baylis, H.A., Richmond, J.E., Jones, A.K., Fleming, J.T., Squire, M.D., Lewis, J.A., Sattelle, D.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. acr-16 encodes an essential subunit of the levamisole-resistant nicotinic receptor at the Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junction. Touroutine, D., Fox, R.M., Von Stetina, S.E., Burdina, A., Miller, D.M., Richmond, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Genes affecting the activity of nicotinic receptors involved in Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying behavior. Kim, J., Poole, D.S., Waggoner, L.E., Kempf, A., Ramirez, D.S., Treschow, P.A., Schafer, W.R. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Levamisole modulates prostaglandin E2 production and cyclooxygenase II gene expression in human colonic cancer cells. Liu, C.Y., Lai, Y.Y., Lo, C.J. J. Surg. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Letter: Immunotherapy with levamisole. Arnold, H.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Some aspects of host response to levamisole after chemotherapy in a murine leukemia. Perk, K., Chirigos, M.A., Fuhrman, F., Pettigrew, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
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