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MeSH Review

Pinnipedia

 
 
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Disease relevance of Pinnipedia

  • A comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from seals (pinnipeds) in Australia, Argentina, Uruguay, Great Britain and New Zealand was undertaken to determine their relationships to each other and their taxonomic position within the complex [1].
  • Sera from 33 cetaceans and 61 pinnipeds gave inhibition values, in one or both of the tests, which exceeded the threshold that indicates Brucella spp. exposure in cattle [2].
 

High impact information on Pinnipedia

  • Lipoproteins in pinnipeds: analysis of a high molecular weight form of apolipoprotein E [3].
  • A glycoprotein B (gB) gene homologue was identified in a 5.4-kb BamHl genomic fragment of the phocid herpesvirus type-1 (PhHV-1) which represents a widespread and important pathogen of pinnipeds [4].
  • In contrast to BAL from terrestrial mammals, BAL from pinnipeds has a higher concentration of phospholipid and relatively more fluidic phosphatidylcholine molecular species, perhaps to facilitate rapid spreading during alveolar reexpansion [5].
  • Normalized concentrations of hydrophobic surfactant proteins B and C were not significantly different among pinnipeds and terrestrial mammals by immunologic assay, but separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis indicated a greater content of surfactant protein B in elephant seal surfactant than in human surfactant [5].
  • Myoglobin levels were higher in all three pinniped species than in the Wistar rat [6].
 

Anatomical context of Pinnipedia

 

Associations of Pinnipedia with chemical compounds

  • Vanadium accumulation in pinnipeds [8].
  • Taurine was the most abundant free AA in milks of pinnipeds (5776-13,643 mumol/l), pigs (1238 mumol/l), goats (1150 mumol/l) and sheep (341 mumol/l) [9].
  • PCB and DDT concentrations measured in a few SSL during the 1980s were the highest recorded for any Alaskan pinniped [10].
  • Taurine was the second most abundant free AA in milks of human subjects and non-human primates, while histidine was the second most abundant free AA in milks of pinnipeds [9].
  • An initial testing for alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH detected concentrations similar to those in other Bering Sea pinnipeds [11].
 

Gene context of Pinnipedia

  • Across these phylogenetically diverse taxa (cetaceans, penguins, and pinnipeds), the final stage of postnatal development of myoglobin occurs during the initiation of independent foraging, regardless of whether development takes place at sea or on land [12].
  • Applicability of the St-RIP test to serologic survey was demonstrated with pinniped, swine, and human (laboratory personnel) sera; numerous positive St-RIP reactions suggested the occurrence of widespread contacts with caliciviruses [13].
  • Tissues of Ladoga ringed seal were to a greater extent contaminated with the heavy metals studied than the tissues of the White Sea pinnipeds [14].
  • Insufficient standardized studies have been undertaken for a clear picture of temporal trends in DDT and PCB concentrations in pinniped tissues to be identified [15].
  • Both categories of congeners are probably metabolized by different families of cytochrome P450 (1A and 2B) of which levels apparently differed between the cetaceans, the pinnipeds, and the otter [16].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pinnipedia

  • Concentrations of total arsenic and individual arsenic compounds were determined in livers of birds, cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sea turtles by using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry [17].

References

  1. Tuberculosis in seals caused by a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium pinnipedii sp. nov. Cousins, D.V., Bastida, R., Cataldi, A., Quse, V., Redrobe, S., Dow, S., Duignan, P., Murray, A., Dupont, C., Ahmed, N., Collins, D.M., Butler, W.R., Dawson, D., Rodríguez, D., Loureiro, J., Romano, M.I., Alito, A., Zumarraga, M., Bernardelli, A. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Serologic survey of Brucella spp. antibodies in some marine mammals of North America. Nielsen, O., Stewart, R.E., Nielsen, K., Measures, L., Duignan, P. J. Wildl. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Lipoproteins in pinnipeds: analysis of a high molecular weight form of apolipoprotein E. Davis, R.W., Pierotti, V.R., Lauer, S.J., Hubl, S.T., McLean, J.W., Witztum, J.L., Young, S.G. J. Lipid Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular characterization and baculovirus expression of the glycoprotein B of a seal herpesvirus (phocid herpesvirus-1). Harder, T.C., Osterhaus, A.D. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Surfactant from diving aquatic mammals. Spragg, R.G., Ponganis, P.J., Marsh, J.J., Rau, G.A., Bernhard, W. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. The metabolic characteristics of the locomotory muscles of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella). Reed, J.Z., Butler, P.J., Fedak, M.A. J. Exp. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Lipid composition of blood platelets and erythrocytes of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) and antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella). Fayolle, C., Leray, C., Ohlmann, P., Gutbier, G., Cazenave, J.P., Gachet, C., Groscolas, R. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Vanadium accumulation in pinnipeds. Saeki, K., Nakajima, M., Noda, K., Loughlin, T.R., Baba, N., Kiyota, M., Tatsukawa, R., Calkins, D.G. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Free amino acids in milks of human subjects, other primates and non-primates. Sarwar, G., Botting, H.G., Davis, T.A., Darling, P., Pencharz, P.B. Br. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Contaminant exposure and effects in pinnipeds: implications for Steller sea lion declines in Alaska. Barron, M.G., Heintz, R., Krahn, M.M. Sci. Total Environ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Organochlorine compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Pacific walrus blubber. Seagars, D.J., Garlich-Miller, J. Mar. Pollut. Bull. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. The development of diving in marine endotherms: preparing the skeletal muscles of dolphins, penguins, and seals for activity during submergence. Noren, S.R., Williams, T.M., Pabst, D.A., McLellan, W.A., Dearolf, J.L. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Assay of antibodies to caliciviruses by radioimmune precipitation using staphylococcal protein A as IgG adsorbent. Soergel, M.E., Schaffer, F.L., Sawyer, J.C., Prato, C.M. Arch. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Levels of heavy metals in seals of Lake Ladoga and the White Sea. Medvedev, N., Panichev, N., Hyvärinen, H. Sci. Total Environ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Organochlorine contamination in pinnipeds. Hutchinson, J.D., Simmonds, M.P. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Concentration-dependent changes of PCB patterns in fish-eating mammals: structural evidence for induction of cytochrome P450. Boon, J.P., van der Meer, J., Allchin, C.R., Law, R.J., Klungsøyr, J., Leonards, P.E., Spliid, H., Storr-Hansen, E., Mckenzie, C., Wells, D.E. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Occurrence of several arsenic compounds in the liver of birds, cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sea turtles. Kubota, R., Kunito, T., Tanabe, S. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
 
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