The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

cholesterol     (3S,8S,9S,10R,13R,14S,17R)- 10,13-dimethyl...

Synonyms: Cordulan, Dusoline, Lidinite, Dusoran, Lidinit, ...
Janne Makkonen, Leo Niskanen, Antti Hakkarainen, David Q-H Wang, Allison B. Reiss, Sarah Clark, Jin Ye, Patricia Fernandez,  Rice, Mourad Tayebi,  Zilmer, Ksenia Sevastianova, Fong-Fu Hsu, Kaisa S. Poutanen,  Ryan, Maarit Hallikainen, Michael H. Lanier, Kamran Anwar, Nobutaka Ohgami, Shaw Watanabe, Steven E. Carsons,  Pulges,  Anderson, Jyrki J. Agren, Maarit Hallikainen, Helena Gylling, Kam S. Mok, Hongwei Zhang, D. Rudi de Waart, Theodore L. Steck, Jonathan R. Emberson, Ta-Yuan Chang, M. Morello, Jane Armitage, Edwin S. L. Chan,  Heerklotz, Hannele Yki-Järvinen,  Pihl, Cindy Kunne, Anna Kotronen, Bruce N. Cronstein, Ronald P. J. Oude Elferink, Helena Gylling, Alison Palmer, G. Pieraccini, G. Liguri, Karl H. Weisgraber, Piia Simonen,  Després,  Zilmer,  Pérusse, Rory Collins, Yadong Huang, F. Rosati, Kaori Endoh, Keizo Umegaki, D. Nosi, A. Peri,  Rao, Alun Williams, Catherine C. Y. Chang, Tatu A. Miettinen, Astrid Fletcher, M. Serio, Kyoko Taku, Daniel S. Ory, Coen C. Paulusma, C. Cecchi, Yoko Sato, Tatu A. Miettinen,  Darsaut, Robert Clarke, Paul Sherliker, Soumya Rao, G. Danza, Yoshio Yamauchi, A. Pensalfini, L. Formigli,  Szadkowska, Martin Shipley, Nina Lundbom, Clive Bate, Sarah Parish,  Bouchard,  Morris, Hannu Mykkänen, M. Stefani, Robert W. Mahley, Sari D. Edelman, Yuko Taki,  Seelig,  Baenziger, Leena Toppinen,  Kullisaar, Pamela Linksted,  Kairane, Yvonne Lange, F. Dichiara, David E. Laaksonen,  
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of cholesterol

  • However, both groups were older and had higher CHOL and prevalence of hypertension than group 0 [1].
  • Reverse cholestrol transport substantially influences the individual risk of coronary heart disease in hypercholesterolaemic patients [2].
  • The percentage of error in sera of patients with atherosclerosis and chronic renal failure was higher than in controls with a similar mean (C/TG)VLDL ratio [3].
  • RESULTS: Physically active former athletes had significantly lower mean overweight (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), better spectrum of atherogenesis indicators (CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio) and lower oxidative stress (oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC) values than sedentary ex-athletes [4].
  • CHL markedly prolonged the QT interval, whereas FLX significantly shortened the QT interval and reduced arrhythmias in the FLX and CHL/FLX hearts [5].
  • These recent findings emphasize the importance of intraplaque hemorrhage as a contributor of free cholesterol in plaques and point to its provocative role in lesion destabilization [6].
  • A growing amount of evidence suggests a mechanistic link between cholesterol metabolism in the brain and the formation of amyloid plaques in AD development [7].
  • Ischemic heart disease mortality was not significantly associated with total cholesterol levels in all men (HR, 1.05), but a significant positive association in men without CVD and a slight nonsignificant inverse association in men with CVD were observed (HR, 1.47 vs 0.84) [8].
  • Based on the result of this large scale community study, HCV viremia appears to be associated with lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels which implies that HCV itself might play a significant role on serum lipid profile of patients with chronic HCV infection [9].
  • These observations suggest that the neuropathogenesis of prion diseases results from PrPSc altering cholesterol-sensitive processes [10].

Psychiatry related information on cholesterol

  • Significant associations were found between physical activity (METs), SBP, DBP, hypertension, CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio, oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC and hsCRP [4].
  • After controlling, for age, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and puberty development, shorter body height was the strongest predictor of total CHOL, LDL-C and ApoB concentrations among boys [11].
  • Significant increases in total CHO (25.4 +/- 17.5 mg/dl, mean +/- SD), LDL-CHO (17.1 +/- 14.5) and LDL (43.9 +/- 37.6) were observed in C-group but were attenuated in the T-group [12].

High impact information on cholesterol

  • The HDL: the good cholestrol carriers [13]?
  • BACKGROUND: The form of vitamin D (vitamin D3) in fortified milk and the provitamin D produced by the body undergo metabolic activation to a biologically active form, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3] [14].
  • Elevated HDL-cholesterol (C) and apo AI are associated with decreased coronary artery disease (CAD) risk [15].
  • By redesigning conventional cationic liposomes, incorporating cholesterol (chol) as the neutral lipid and preparing them as multilamellar vesicles (MLV), we increased the efficiency of cationic liposome:DNA complex (CLDC)-mediated gene delivery [16].
  • Monocytoid cell binding to aortic endothelium was significantly increased in Chol (P < .001 versus Cont); binding was markedly reduced in arginine-fed hypercholesterolemic animals (P < .05, Arg versus Chol) [17].

Chemical compound and disease context of cholesterol


Biological context of cholesterol

  • The receptor for LDL was functional in maintaining Chol homeostasis, as demonstrated by feedback inhibition of Chol synthesis after culture with LDL or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) [23].
  • In 1340 women studied 6-12 wk postpartum (PP-GDM group), chol and LDL-chol were similar to levels in 43 postpartum control subjects without prior GDM [24].
  • Cationic liposomes containing DC-6-14, DOPE, and Chol in molar ratios of 1:0.75:0.75 and 1:1:0.8 maintained efficient transfection activity under serum-containing conditions in HRA, mEIIL, and ES-2 cell lines in vitro, as determined by luciferase assay [25].
  • Thus, vigorous regular walking resulted in a reduction of body fate stores, endogenous insulin requirements, and food intake, and perhaps improved the ability to eliminate cholestrol by increasing the plasma high density lipoprotein fraction [26].
  • To test this hypothesis, we examined the differentiation, proliferation, or apoptosis profile of smooth muscle cell (SMC) and adventitial cell response to a mild injury induced via a Fogarty catheter in the carotid artery of adult rabbits that had been fed a standard chow or 0.5% CT-enriched diet starting 4 weeks before the lesion [27].

Anatomical context of cholesterol

  • Incubation with native lipoproteins did not lead to accumulation of esterified Chol by macrophages [23].
  • These markers are absent in similar difference spectra recorded from the nAChR reconstituted into EPC membranes lacking both Chol and DOPA, indicating that the nAChR cannot undergo conformational change in response to agonist binding [28].
  • Likelihood ratio tests revealed the presence of significant (P < .05) cross-trait resemblance between body fat (BMI and SF6) and all lipid traits except CH and also between fat distribution (TER and TER-sf) and CH/HDL and CH-HDL [29].
  • Caveolins transport cholestrol to and from caveolae, and they regulate the activity of signaling proteins that reside in caveolae [30].
  • However, the P/C molar ratio is higher in the retroviral envelope than in the plasma membrane where they originate, and higher than in the nuclear envelope [31].

Associations of cholesterol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of cholesterol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cholesterol

  • The turnover of 125I-labeled low density lipoprotein (LDL) and the total body balance of cholestrol were studied in a 6-yr-old girl with the homozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) before and after the surgical creation of an end-to-side portacaval shunt [56].
  • We conclude that the serum levels of CH, TG and LDL do not seem to be related to restenosis after PTCA [57].
  • We examined three major components of surfactant, surfactant protein A (SP-A), disaturated phospholipids (DSP), and cholesterol (CHOL) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 12 healthy men before and after exercise [58].
  • We measure the interactions between TX and an equimolar mixture of sphingomyelin (SM), cholesterol (Cho), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) (1:1:1, mol) by means of isothermal titration calorimetry [59].
  • These studies demonstrate that a cholestrol-enriched, atherogenic diet causes profound and reversible changes in the lipid composition, membrane fluidity, and morphology of red cells in dogs [60].


  1. Independent prognostic significance of ischemic ST-segment response limited to recovery from treadmill exercise in asymptomatic subjects. Rywik, T.M., Zink, R.C., Gittings, N.S., Khan, A.A., Wright, J.G., O'Connor, F.C., Fleg, J.L. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Reverse cholestrol transport substantially influences the individual risk of coronary heart disease in hypercholesterolaemic patients. Poledne, R., Rosolová, H. Eur. Heart J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Influence of intermediate-density lipoproteins on the accuracy of the Friedewald formula. Sentí, M., Pedro-Botet, J., Nogués, X., Rubiés-Prat, J. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. High-sensitive C-reactive protein level and oxidative stress-related status in former athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pihl, E., Zilmer, K., Kullisaar, T., Kairane, C., Pulges, A., Zilmer, M. Atherosclerosis (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Dietary flaxseed protects against ventricular fibrillation induced by ischemia-reperfusion in normal and hypercholesterolemic Rabbits. Ander, B.P., Weber, A.R., Rampersad, P.P., Gilchrist, J.S., Pierce, G.N., Lukas, A. J. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Free cholesterol in atherosclerotic plaques: where does it come from? Kolodgie, F.D., Burke, A.P., Nakazawa, G., Cheng, Q., Xu, X., Virmani, R. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Alzheimer's disease: cholesterol, membrane rafts, isoprenoids and statins. Reid, P.C., Urano, Y., Kodama, T., Hamakubo, T. J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Cholesterol fractions and apolipoproteins as risk factors for heart disease mortality in older men. Clarke, R., Emberson, J.R., Parish, S., Palmer, A., Shipley, M., Linksted, P., Sherliker, P., Clark, S., Armitage, J., Fletcher, A., Collins, R. Arch. Intern. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Associations between hepatitis C viremia and low serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels: a community-based study. Dai, C.Y., Chuang, W.L., Ho, C.K., Hsieh, M.Y., Huang, J.F., Lee, L.P., Hou, N.J., Lin, Z.Y., Chen, S.C., Hsieh, M.Y., Wang, L.Y., Tsai, J.F., Chang, W.Y., Yu, M.L. J. Hepatol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  10. Sequestration of free cholesterol in cell membranes by prions correlates with cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activation. Bate, C., Tayebi, M., Williams, A. BMC Biol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  11. Relationship between anthropometric variables and lipid levels among school children: The Taipei Children Heart Study. Chu, N.F., Rimm, E.B., Wang, D.J., Liou, H.S., Shieh, S.M. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of oral taurine supplementation on lipids and sympathetic nerve tone. Mizushima, S., Nara, Y., Sawamura, M., Yamori, Y. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. The HDL: the good cholestrol carriers? Marx, J.L. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Prevention of preneoplastic mammary lesion development by a novel vitamin D analogue, 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D5. Mehta, R.G., Moriarty, R.M., Mehta, R.R., Penmasta, R., Lazzaro, G., Constantinou, A., Guo, L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Polymorphisms at the 5'-end of the apolipoprotein AI gene and severity of coronary artery disease. Wang, X.L., Liu, S.X., McCredie, R.M., Wilcken, D.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Factors influencing the efficiency of cationic liposome-mediated intravenous gene delivery. Liu, Y., Mounkes, L.C., Liggitt, H.D., Brown, C.S., Solodin, I., Heath, T.D., Debs, R.J. Nat. Biotechnol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Enhanced endothelial adhesiveness in hypercholesterolemia is attenuated by L-arginine. Tsao, P.S., McEvoy, L.M., Drexler, H., Butcher, E.C., Cooke, J.P. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of tocopherol on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A clinical observation. Hermann, W.J., Ward, K., Faucett, J. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Anthropometry and lipoproteins-related characteristics of young adult males in Taiwan. Ding, Y.A., Chu, N.F., Wang, T.W., Lin, C.C. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Safety of low-density lipoprotein cholestrol reduction with atorvastatin versus simvastatin in a coronary heart disease population (the TARGET TANGIBLE trial). März, W., Wollschläger, H., Klein, G., Neiss, A., Wehling, M. Am. J. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Interbilayer lipid mixing induced by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 fusion peptide on large unilamellar vesicles: the nature of the nonlamellar intermediates. Pereira, F.B., Valpuesta, J.M., Basañez, G., Goñi, F.M., Nieva, J.L. Chem. Phys. Lipids (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Wang, D.Q. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Low density lipoprotein receptor activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages and its relation to atheromatous lesions. Traber, M.G., Kayden, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Serum lipids within 36 mo of delivery in women with recent gestational diabetes. Kjos, S.L., Buchanan, T.A., Montoro, M., Coulson, A., Mestman, J.H. Diabetes (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Development of novel cationic liposomes for efficient gene transfer into peritoneal disseminated tumor. Kikuchi, A., Aoki, Y., Sugaya, S., Serikawa, T., Takakuwa, K., Tanaka, K., Suzuki, N., Kikuchi, H. Hum. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of a vigorous walking program on body composition, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of obese young men. Leon, A.S., Conrad, J., Hunninghake, D.B., Serfass, R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Fish oil supplementation prevents neointima formation in nonhypercholesterolemic balloon-injured rabbit carotid artery by reducing medial and adventitial cell activation. Faggin, E., Puato, M., Chiavegato, A., Franch, R., Pauletto, P., Sartore, S. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of membrane lipid composition on the conformational equilibria of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Baenziger, J.E., Morris, M.L., Darsaut, T.E., Ryan, S.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Cross-trait familial resemblance for body fat and blood lipids: familial correlations in the Quebec Family Study. Pérusse, L., Rice, T., Després, J.P., Rao, D.C., Bouchard, C. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Caveolae and their coat proteins, the caveolins: from electron microscopic novelty to biological launching pad. Schlegel, A., Lisanti, M.P. J. Cell. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Human immunodeficiency virus and host cell lipids. Interesting pathways in research for a new HIV therapy. Raulin, J. Prog. Lipid Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Interaction between cholesterol and glucose metabolism during dietary carbohydrate modification in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Hallikainen, M., Toppinen, L., Mykkänen, H., Agren, J.J., Laaksonen, D.E., Miettinen, T.A., Niskanen, L., Poutanen, K.S., Gylling, H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Free cholesterol alters lipid raft structure and function regulating neutrophil Ca2+ entry and respiratory burst: correlations with calcium channel raft trafficking. Kannan, K.B., Barlos, D., Hauser, C.J. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Soy isoflavones lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials. Taku, K., Umegaki, K., Sato, Y., Taki, Y., Endoh, K., Watanabe, S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. Increased cellular free cholesterol in macrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out mice enhances pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Zhu, X., Lee, J.Y., Timmins, J.M., Brown, J.M., Boudyguina, E., Mulya, A., Gebre, A.K., Willingham, M.C., Hiltbold, E.M., Mishra, N., Maeda, N., Parks, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  36. Effectors of rapid homeostatic responses of endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Lange, Y., Ory, D.S., Ye, J., Lanier, M.H., Hsu, F.F., Steck, T.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  37. Cholesterol substitution increases the structural heterogeneity of caveolae. Jansen, M., Pietiaïnen, V.M., Pölönen, H., Rasilainen, L., Koivusalo, M., Ruotsalainen, U., Jokitalo, E., Ikonen, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  38. Cholesterol in islet dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. Brunham, L.R., Kruit, J.K., Verchere, C.B., Hayden, M.R. J. Clin. Invest. (2008) [Pubmed]
  39. Atheroprotective effects of methotrexate on reverse cholesterol transport proteins and foam cell transformation in human THP-1 monocyte/macrophages. Reiss, A.B., Carsons, S.E., Anwar, K., Rao, S., Edelman, S.D., Zhang, H., Fernandez, P., Cronstein, B.N., Chan, E.S. Arthritis Rheum. (2008) [Pubmed]
  40. Enhanced free cholesterol, SREBP-2 and StAR expression in human NASH. Caballero, F., Fernández, A., De Lacy, A.M., Fernández-Checa, J.C., Caballería, J., García-Ruiz, C. J. Hepatol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  41. Targeting cholesterol at different levels in the mevalonate pathway protects fatty liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Llacuna, L., Fernández, A., Montfort, C.V., Matías, N., Martínez, L., Caballero, F., Rimola, A., Elena, M., Morales, A., Fernández-Checa, J.C., García-Ruiz, C. J. Hepatol. (2011) [Pubmed]
  42. Cholesterol synthesis is increased and absorption decreased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of obesity. Simonen, P., Kotronen, A., Hallikainen, M., Sevastianova, K., Makkonen, J., Hakkarainen, A., Lundbom, N., Miettinen, T.A., Gylling, H., Yki-Järvinen, H. J. Hepatol. (2011) [Pubmed]
  43. Constitutive androstane receptor activation stimulates faecal bile acid excretion and reverse cholesterol transport in mice. Sberna, A.L., Assem, M., Gautier, T., Grober, J., Guiu, B., Jeannin, A., Pais de Barros, J.P., Athias, A., Lagrost, L., Masson, D. J. Hepatol. (2011) [Pubmed]
  44. Putting cholesterol in its place: apoE and reverse cholesterol transport. Mahley, R.W., Huang, Y., Weisgraber, K.H. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  45. Cholesterol sensing, trafficking, and esterification. Chang, T.Y., Chang, C.C., Ohgami, N., Yamauchi, Y. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  46. Increased gallstone risk in humans conferred by common variant of hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter for cholesterol. Grünhage, F., Acalovschi, M., Tirziu, S., Walier, M., Wienker, T.F., Ciocan, A., Mosteanu, O., Sauerbruch, T., Lammert, F. Hepatology (2007) [Pubmed]
  47. Ligand activation of LXR beta reverses atherosclerosis and cellular cholesterol overload in mice lacking LXR alpha and apoE. Bradley, M.N., Hong, C., Chen, M., Joseph, S.B., Wilpitz, D.C., Wang, X., Lusis, A.J., Collins, A., Hseuh, W.A., Collins, J.L., Tangirala, R.K., Tontonoz, P. J. Clin. Invest. (2007) [Pubmed]
  48. RAB-10 regulates glutamate receptor recycling in a cholesterol-dependent endocytosis pathway. Glodowski, D.R., Chen, C.C., Schaefer, H., Grant, B.D., Rongo, C. Mol. Biol. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  49. Niemann-Pick C1 protects against atherosclerosis in mice via regulation of macrophage intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Zhang, J.R., Coleman, T., Langmade, S.J., Scherrer, D.E., Lane, L., Lanier, M.H., Feng, C., Sands, M.S., Schaffer, J.E., Semenkovich, C.F., Ory, D.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2008) [Pubmed]
  50. Seladin-1/DHCR24 protects neuroblastoma cells against Abeta toxicity by increasing membrane cholesterol content. Cecchi, C., Rosati, F., Pensalfini, A., Formigli, L., Nosi, D., Liguri, G., Dichiara, F., Morello, M., Danza, G., Pieraccini, G., Peri, A., Serio, M., Stefani, M. J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2008) [Pubmed]
  51. Cellular cholesterol substrate pools for adenosine-triphosphate cassette transporter A1-dependent high-density lipoprotein formation. Boadu, E., Bilbey, N.J., Francis, G.A. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  52. Polymorphism of the hepatic influx transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 is associated with increased cholesterol synthesis rate. Pasanen, M.K., Miettinen, T.A., Gylling, H., Neuvonen, P.J., Niemi, M. Pharmacogenet. Genomics (2008) [Pubmed]
  53. Activity of the bile salt export pump (ABCB11) is critically dependent on canalicular membrane cholesterol content. Paulusma, C.C., de Waart, D.R., Kunne, C., Mok, K.S., Elferink, R.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  54. Activation of the liver X receptor stimulates trans-intestinal excretion of plasma cholesterol. van der Veen, J.N., van Dijk, T.H., Vrins, C.L., van Meer, H., Havinga, R., Bijsterveld, K., Tietge, U.J., Groen, A.K., Kuipers, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  55. DISP3, a sterol-sensing domain-containing protein that links thyroid hormone action and cholesterol metabolism. Zikova, M., Corlett, A., Bendova, Z., Pajer, P., Bartunek, P. Mol. Endocrinol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  56. Reduction in cholesterol and low density lipoprotein synthesis after portacaval shunt surgery in a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Bilheimer, D.W., Goldstein, J.L., Grundy, S.M., Brown, M.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  57. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in relation to restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Johansson, S.R., Wiklund, O., Karlsson, T., Hjalmarson, A., Emanuelsson, H. Eur. Heart J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  58. Composition of human pulmonary surfactant varies with exercise and level of fitness. Doyle, I.R., Jones, M.E., Barr, H.A., Orgeig, S., Crockett, A.J., McDonald, C.F., Nicholas, T.E. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  59. The sensitivity of lipid domains to small perturbations demonstrated by the effect of Triton. Heerklotz, H., Szadkowska, H., Anderson, T., Seelig, J. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  60. Red cell cholesterol enrichment and spur cell anemia in dogs fed a cholesterol-enriched atherogenic diet. Cooper, R.A., Leslie, M.H., Knight, D., Detweiler, D.K. J. Lipid Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities