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Disease relevance of Elephantiasis


High impact information on Elephantiasis

  • Elephantiasis and complicated varicose veins in a tropical population [6].
  • Decreased serum concentrations of soluble (s-) L selectin (CD62L) were noticed in sera of of patients with chronic conditions (hydrocele and elephantiasis) [7].
  • Both DR3 and the 2B3 epitope (on DQ6, DQ8, and DQ9 molecules) were significantly decreased in patients with elephantiasis whereas the DQ5 frequency was significantly higher in patients than in controls [8].
  • Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa: beneficial effect of oral etretinate therapy [9].
  • After initiation of treatment, the levels of IL-6 and LPS-binding protein (LBP) were consistently and significantly higher in microfilaraemics who suffered most from adverse reactions compared with endemic normals and elephantiasis patients [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Elephantiasis


Biological context of Elephantiasis

  • Such ADCC reactions are most often mediated by sera from amicrofilaremic patients with chronic elephantiasis that contain low or undetectable levels of IgG antibodies to chitinase [15].

Gene context of Elephantiasis

  • In comparison with other groups of subjects, IgG4-ELISA of sera from microfilaraemic patients and some previously microfilaraemic patients showed a significant increase in optical density readings, while IgG2-ELISA showed elevated optical density readings in sera of patients with chronic elephantiasis [16].
  • Elephantiasis in São Tomé and Príncipe [17].
  • Sheathed microfilariae incubated with sera of people living in endemic zones of filariasis but with no apparent evidence of infection (endemic normals), or with sera of chronic elephantiasis patients, or with their respective gamma globulin fractions, bound Con A and LCH [18].
  • In combining the data, the significance of the difference of the frequency of B15 between patients with elephantiasis and controls was even more marked (p = 0.00045; corrected p = 0.012; RR = 4.4) [19].
  • The asymptomatic microfilaremic serum showed five times increase in AChE-activity as compared with normal serum, whereas only little difference was observed in serum from patients with elephantiasis [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Elephantiasis

  • An antigenic band with the MW of approximately 37 kDa was found to be consistently present in the Western blots of all microfilaraemic sera, all amicrofilaraemic sera with high titres of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, some treated patients, and some elephantiasis patients [21].


  1. Onchocerciasis: invasion of deep organs by Onchocerca volvulus. Meyers, W.M., Neafie, R.C., Connor, D.H. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Immune responses in human Brugia malayi infections: serum dependent cell-mediated destruction of infective larvae in vitro. Sim, B.K., Kwa, B.H., Mak, J.W. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited. Gupta, S., Ajith, C., Kanwar, A.J., Sehgal, V.N., Kumar, B., Mete, U. International journal of STD & AIDS. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Familial neurofibromatosis-1 and Gilbert syndrome. Kocer, U., Uysal, A., Sungur, N., Karaaslan, O., Kankaya, Y., Tiftikcioglu, Y. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. About the paper "Elephantiasis neuromatosa and Becker's melanosis" (J Dermatol, 26: 396-398, 1999). Metin, A., Tuncay, I., Uğraş, S. J. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Elephantiasis and complicated varicose veins in a tropical population. Rougemont, A., Balique, H. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Soluble cellular adhesion molecules, selectins, VEGF and endothelin-1 in patients with Wuchereria bancrofti infection and association with clinical status. Esterre, P., Plichart, C., Huin-Blondey, M.O., Nguyen, L.N. Parasite Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. HLA and elephantiasis in lymphatic filariasis. Yazdanbakhsh, M., Sartono, E., Kruize, Y.C., Kurniawan, A., Partono, F., Maizels, R.M., Schreuder, G.M., Schipper, R., de Vries, R.R. Hum. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa: beneficial effect of oral etretinate therapy. Zouboulis, C.C., Biczó, S., Gollnick, H., Reupke, H.J., Rinck, G., Szabó, M., Fekete, J., Orfanos, C.E. Br. J. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Inflammatory cytokines following diethylcarbamazine (DEC) treatment of different clinical groups in lymphatic filariasis. Haarbrink, M., Terhell, A.J., Abadi, G.K., Mitsui, Y., Yazdanbakhsh, M. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. The effects of 5,6 benzo-[a]-pyrone (coumarin) and DEC on filaritic lymphoedema and elephantiasis in India. Preliminary results. Jamal, S., Casley-Smith, J.R., Casley-Smith, J.R. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Reduction of filaritic lymphoedema and elephantiasis by 5,6 benzo-alpha-pyrone (coumarin), and the effects of diethylcarbamazine (DEC). Casley-Smith, J.R., Jamal, S., Casley-Smith, J. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Alkaloids and coumarins of Zanthoxylum elephantiasis [proceedings]. Fish, F., Gray, A.I., Waterman, P.G. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Elephantiasis nostrum verrucosa of the abdomen: clinical results with tazarotene. Boyd, J., Sloan, S., Meffert, J. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential recognition of microfilarial chitinase, a transmission-blocking vaccine candidate antigen, by sera from patients with Brugian and Bancroftian filariasis. Dissanayake, S., Perler, F.B., Xu, M., Southworth, M.W., Yee, C.K., Wang, S., Dreyer, G., Watawana, L., Kurniawan, L., Fuhrman, J.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Potential use of IgG2-ELISA in the diagnosis of chronic elephantiasis and IgG4-ELISA in the follow-up of microfilaraemic patients infected with Brugia malayi. Rahmah, N., Anuar, A.K., Karim, R., Mehdi, R., Sinniah, B., Omar, A.W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Elephantiasis in São Tomé and Príncipe. Ruiz, L., Campo, E., Corachán, M. Acta Trop. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Lectin-binding characteristics of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. Rao, U.R., Chandrashekar, R., Parab, P.B., Rajasekariah, G.R., Subrahmanyam, D. Acta Trop. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. HLA and filariasis in Sri Lankans and Indians. Chan, S.H., Dissanayake, S., Mak, J.W., Ismail, M.M., Wee, G.B., Srinivasan, N., Soo, B.H., Zaman, V. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro and in vivo effect of diethylcarbamazine on the activity of acetylcholinesterase from Wuchereria bancrofti infected human serum. Misra, S., Taneja, V., Rathaur, S. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. A Brugia malayi antigen specifically recognized by infected individuals. Rahmah, N., Anuar, A.K., A'shikin, A.N., Lim, B.H., Mehdi, R., Abdullah, B., Zurainee, M.N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
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