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MeSH Review

Glasgow Outcome Scale

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Disease relevance of Glasgow Outcome Scale


High impact information on Glasgow Outcome Scale

  • Patients were assessed initially using the Glasgow coma score, and survivors were assessed after 6 months using the Glasgow outcome scale [6].
  • At 6 months after the procedure, 3 patients (25%) had achieved a good recovery (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score of 5), 5 patients (42%) were dependent (GOS 3), and 1 (8.3%) remained vegetative (GOS 2) [7].
  • Peak plasma levels of S-100 protein correlated well with infarct volume (r = .75, P < .001) and with clinical outcome assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (r = .51, P < .001) [8].
  • The results showed that a greater proportion of the traxoprodil-treated subjects had a favorable outcome on the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (dGOS) at 6 months (delta 5.5%, OR 1.3, p = 0.21, 95% CI:[0.85, 2.06]) and at last visit (delta 7.5%, OR 1.47, p = 0.07, 95% CI:[0.97, 2.25]) [9].
  • The FSE assessed by the SO was significantly (p < 0.05) more closely related to each severity index than the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) or Sickness Impact Profile and, for two of the three indices, than the SF-36 [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Glasgow Outcome Scale

  • Postoperative outcome, defined as good or bad according to modified Glasgow Outcome Scale, was correlated in homogenous experimental groups with the following factors: gender, age, aneurysmal size, preoperative interval, nimodipine therapy, experience of surgical team and existence of chronic vascular diseases [11].

Biological context of Glasgow Outcome Scale


Associations of Glasgow Outcome Scale with chemical compounds

  • On a descriptive basis, the proportion of patients having good outcome or moderate disability (Glasgow Outcome Scale) was somewhat greater in repinotan-treated patients (60%) than in placebo (50%) [13].
  • Outcome was categorized as either independent (good recovery or moderate disability) or poor (severely disabled, vegetative, or dead) by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale; patients were also grouped according to the Marshall computerized tomography scan classification [14].
  • Patients receiving 6 mg/kg per day of tirilazad had reduced mortality (p = 0.01) and a greater frequency of good recovery on the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after SAH (p = 0.01) than similar patients treated with vehicle [15].
  • Fifty-five percent of nicardipine-treated patients were rated as having a good recovery according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at follow-up review and 17% were dead, compared to 56% and 18%, respectively, in the placebo-treated group (not statistically significant) [16].
  • The result of treatment with triamcinolone was assessed at discharge from the hospital and at 1 year after trauma, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale [17].

Gene context of Glasgow Outcome Scale

  • According to the presence or absence of responses and the duration of central conduction time, SEP and MEP obtained during Days 1 through 3 after the onset of coma were divided into four categories and correlated with the outcome of the patients, as assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale [18].
  • Information regarding patient age, gender, type of trauma, initial GCS, precipitating reason for herniation, uni-/bilateral pupil dilatation, treatment(s) and outcome after at least 6 months, assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), was collected from medical records [19].
  • When the impact of bleeding into CSF was considered, patients with very good outcome [Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)=5] had significantly lower CSF NOx (11.1+/-1.3 microM) than those with worse outcome (GOS<5) (21.8+/-11.2 microM, p<0.01) [20].
  • MDD was associated with disability (Glasgow Outcome Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire) and cognitive impairment [21].
  • Outcome after 1 year, scored on a modified Glasgow Outcome Scale, was predicted to a small extent by PTA duration and initial performance on the RT-Distraction task [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Glasgow Outcome Scale

  • RESULTS: Higher CSF CK-BB levels were associated with higher Hunt and Hess grades at hospital admission (Spearman rank correlation, p = 0.69; P<.001), lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores at hospital admission (p = -0.72; P<.001), and worse early outcomes on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (p = -0.64; P<.001) [23].


  1. TGF-beta is elevated in the CSF of patients with severe traumatic brain injuries and parallels blood-brain barrier function. Morganti-Kossmann, M.C., Hans, V.H., Lenzlinger, P.M., Dubs, R., Ludwig, E., Trentz, O., Kossmann, T. J. Neurotrauma (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Plasma glucose levels and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Lanzino, G., Kassell, N.F., Germanson, T., Truskowski, L., Alves, W. J. Neurosurg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased incidence and impact of nonconvulsive and convulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury as detected by continuous electroencephalographic monitoring. Vespa, P.M., Nuwer, M.R., Nenov, V., Ronne-Engstrom, E., Hovda, D.A., Bergsneider, M., Kelly, D.F., Martin, N.A., Becker, D.P. J. Neurosurg. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  7. Stereotactic computed tomographic-guided aspiration and thrombolysis of intracerebral hematoma : protocol and preliminary experience. Montes, J.M., Wong, J.H., Fayad, P.B., Awad, I.A. Stroke (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase concentrations in blood as indicators of infarction volume and prognosis in acute ischemic stroke. Missler, U., Wiesmann, M., Friedrich, C., Kaps, M. Stroke (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. The effect of the selective NMDA receptor antagonist traxoprodil in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. Yurkewicz, L., Weaver, J., Bullock, M.R., Marshall, L.F. J. Neurotrauma (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional status examination: a new instrument for assessing outcome in traumatic brain injury. Dikmen, S., Machamer, J., Miller, B., Doctor, J., Temkin, N. J. Neurotrauma (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Factors influencing the outcome after the operative treatment of cerebral aneurysms of anterior circulation. Roganović, Z., Pavlićević, G. Vojnosanitetski pregled. Military-medical and pharmaceutical review. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary study. Niskakangas, T., Ohman, J., Niemelä, M., Ilveskoski, E., Kunnas, T.A., Karhunen, P.J. Stroke (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Repinotan (BAY x 3702): a 5HT1A agonist in traumatically brain injured patients. Ohman, J., Braakman, R., Legout, V. J. Neurotrauma (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Determination of threshold levels of cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure in severe head injury by using receiver-operating characteristic curves: an observational study in 291 patients. Chambers, I.R., Treadwell, L., Mendelow, A.D. J. Neurosurg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of tirilazad mesylate in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cooperative study in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Kassell, N.F., Haley, E.C., Apperson-Hansen, C., Alves, W.M. J. Neurosurg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. A randomized controlled trial of high-dose intravenous nicardipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A report of the Cooperative Aneurysm Study. Haley, E.C., Kassell, N.F., Torner, J.C. J. Neurosurg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of patients with severe head injury by triamcinolone: a prospective, controlled multicenter clinical trial of 396 cases. Grumme, T., Baethmann, A., Kolodziejczyk, D., Krimmer, J., Fischer, M., von Eisenhart Rothe, B., Pelka, R., Bennefeld, H., Pöllauer, E., Kostron, H. Research in experimental medicine. Zeitschrift für die gesamte experimentelle Medizin einschliesslich experimenteller Chirurgie. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. The prognostic value of somatosensory and motor evoked potentials in comatose patients. Zentner, J., Rohde, V. Neurosurgery (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Long-time outcome after transient transtentorial herniation in patients with traumatic brain injury. Skoglund, T.S., Nellgård, B. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Cerebrospinal fluid nitrite/nitrate correlated with oxyhemoglobin and outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Rejdak, K., Petzold, A., Sharpe, M.A., Kay, A.D., Kerr, M., Keir, G., Thompson, E.J., Giovannoni, G. J. Neurol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at three months after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Levin, H.S., Brown, S.A., Song, J.X., McCauley, S.R., Boake, C., Contant, C.F., Goodman, H., Kotrla, K.J. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology : official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Recovery versus retest effects in attention after closed head injury. Spikman, J.M., Timmerman, M.E., Zomeren van, A.H., Deelman, B.G. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology : official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Cerebrospinal fluid creatine kinase-BB isoenzyme activity and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Coplin, W.M., Longstreth, W.T., Lam, A.M., Chandler, W.L., Mayberg, T.S., Fine, J.S., Winn, H.R. Arch. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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