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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Anoxemia


Psychiatry related information on Anoxemia


High impact information on Anoxemia


Chemical compound and disease context of Anoxemia

  • The conclusions are cocaine alters fetal oxygenation by reducing uterine blood flow and impairing oxygen transfer to the fetus; and fetal cardiovascular changes to maternal administration of cocaine may reflect fetal hypoxemia, increased fetal levels of cocaine or fetal catecholamines, or a combination of these events [13].
  • Hypoxemia from sublingual nitroglycerin [14].
  • The physiological relationship of increased circulating angiotensin II and vasopressin to circulatory changes during combined hypoxemia and hypercapnic acidosis is unclear [1].
  • These data demonstrate a down-regulation of the left ventricular beta-adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase system during chronic hypoxemia secondary to an intracardiac right-to-left shunt [2].
  • In a model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) with secondary hypoxemia, rats were treated with vehicle or with 1 of 2 iNOS inhibitors (aminoguanidine and L-N-iminoethyl-lysine), administered by Alzet pump for 5 days and 1 [15].

Biological context of Anoxemia


Anatomical context of Anoxemia


Gene context of Anoxemia

  • Tissue injury that accompanies hypoxemia/reoxygenation shares features with the host response in inflammation, suggesting that cytokines, such as IL-1, may act as mediators in this setting [25].
  • The significant correlations noted between CYP2E1 and hypoxemia and beta-OH butyrate suggest that these factors play a role in increased CYP2E1 activity that is seen in patients with NASH [18].
  • Hypoxemia and blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses in mice lacking heme oxygenase-2 [26].
  • Neuronal immunostaining for 5-LO was up-regulated occasionally during hypoxemia and focal ischemic damage [27].
  • This suggests that chronic hypoxemia has an opposing effect on eNOS and nNOS gene regulation [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anoxemia

  • In patients who have severe COPD without waking hypoxemia, cor pulmonale is detected nearly twice as often by echocardiography as by clinical methods, but is usually not associated with sleep desaturation [29].
  • For the eight other patients, variations in the greatly elevated cardiac output associated with hypoxemia led to poor correlations between PtcO2 and O2 delivery [30].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: RSV-mediated inhibition of AFC is associated temporally with a 20-nM increase in UTP and ATP content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hypoxemia, and altered nasal potential difference [31].
  • The present case also indicates that, in the absence of cerebral ischemia or hypoxemia secondary to cardiopulmonary depression, complete clinical recovery from glutethimide-induced coma is possible no matter how severe the presenting neurologic and EEG signs [32].
  • Hemoglobin saturation as measured by pulse oximetry correlated significantly with PaO2 (r = .65, p less than .0001); more importantly, an oximeter O2 Sat less than 95% showed 100% sensitivity in identifying hypoxemia (i.e., PaO2 less than 70 torr) [33].


  1. Role of arginine vasopressin and angiotensin II in cardiovascular responses to combined acute hypoxemia and hypercapnic acidosis in conscious dogs. Rose, C.E., Godine, R.L., Rose, K.Y., Anderson, R.J., Carey, R.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential regulation of right and left ventricular beta-adrenergic receptors in newborn lambs with experimental cyanotic heart disease. Bernstein, D., Voss, E., Huang, S., Doshi, R., Crane, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Endotoxin-induced pulmonary dysfunction is prevented by C1-esterase inhibitor. Guerrero, R., Velasco, F., Rodriguez, M., Lopez, A., Rojas, R., Alvarez, M.A., Villalba, R., Rubio, V., Torres, A., del Castillo, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Use of macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan to diagnose hepatopulmonary syndrome: a new approach. Abrams, G.A., Nanda, N.C., Dubovsky, E.V., Krowka, M.J., Fallon, M.B. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Dilantin toxicity: miliary pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia. Bayer, A.S., Targan, S.R., Pitchon, H.E., Guze, L.B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Temporal response of immunoreactive erythropoietin to acute hypoxemia in fetal sheep. Widness, J.A., Teramo, K.A., Clemons, G.K., Garcia, J.F., Cavalieri, R.L., Piasecki, G.J., Jackson, B.T., Susa, J.B., Schwartz, R. Pediatr. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep. Gay, P.C. Respiratory care. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Decreased erythropoietin response in patients with the anemia of cancer. Miller, C.B., Jones, R.J., Piantadosi, S., Abeloff, M.D., Spivak, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhanced plasma beta-thromboglobulin in hypoxemia: effect of dipyridamole. Nenci, G.G., Berrettini, M., Todisco, T., Parise, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of acetazolamide on hypoxemia during sleep at high altitude. Sutton, J.R., Houston, C.S., Mansell, A.L., McFadden, M.D., Hackett, P.M., Rigg, J.R., Powles, A.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Local cerebral glucose metabolism during controlled hypoxemia in rats. Pulsinelli, W.A., Duffy, T.E. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Hypoxemia is associated with mitochondrial DNA damage and gene induction. Implications for cardiac disease. Corral-Debrinski, M., Stepien, G., Shoffner, J.M., Lott, M.T., Kanter, K., Wallace, D.C. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of cocaine on uterine blood flow and fetal oxygenation. Woods, J.R., Plessinger, M.A., Clark, K.E. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Hypoxemia from sublingual nitroglycerin. Danilevicius, Z. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is an endogenous neuroprotectant after traumatic brain injury in rats and mice. Sinz, E.H., Kochanek, P.M., Dixon, C.E., Clark, R.S., Carcillo, J.A., Schiding, J.K., Chen, M., Wisniewski, S.R., Carlos, T.M., Williams, D., DeKosky, S.T., Watkins, S.C., Marion, D.W., Billiar, T.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Thromboxane receptor blockade prevents pulmonary hypertension induced by heparin-protamine reactions in awake sheep. Montalescot, G., Lowenstein, E., Ogletree, M.L., Greene, E.M., Robinson, D.R., Hartl, K., Zapol, W.M. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Prostaglandin control of the renal circulation in response to hypoxemia in the fetal lamb in utero. Millard, R.W., Baig, H., Vatner, S.F. Circ. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 activity in nondiabetic patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Chalasani, N., Gorski, J.C., Asghar, M.S., Asghar, A., Foresman, B., Hall, S.D., Crabb, D.W. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Cellular redistribution of inducible Hsp70 protein in the human and rabbit heart in response to the stress of chronic hypoxia: role of protein kinases,. Rafiee, P., Shi, Y., Pritchard, K.A., Ogawa, H., Eis, A.L., Komorowski, R.A., Fitzpatrick, C.M., Tweddell, J.S., Litwin, S.B., Mussatto, K., Jaquiss, R.D., Baker, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis after chlorine inhalation. Szerlip, H.M., Singer, I. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of chronic fetal hyperglycemia upon oxygen consumption in the ovine uterus and conceptus. Philipps, A.F., Porte, P.J., Stabinsky, S., Rosenkrantz, T.S., Raye, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Prostaglandin E1 prevents increased lung microvascular permeability during intravascular complement activation in sheep. Gee, M.H., Tahamont, M.V., Flynn, J.T., Cox, J.W., Pullen, R.H., Andreadis, N.A. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypoxia-induced sympathetic inhibition of the fetal plasma insulin response to hyperglycemia. Jackson, B.T., Cohn, H.E., Morrison, S.H., Baker, R.M., Piasecki, G.J. Diabetes (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava into the left atrium. Park, H.M., Summerer, M.H., Preuss, K., Armstrong, W.F., Mahomed, Y., Hamilton, D.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Hypoxia-mediated induction of endothelial cell interleukin-1 alpha. An autocrine mechanism promoting expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules on the vessel surface. Shreeniwas, R., Koga, S., Karakurum, M., Pinsky, D., Kaiser, E., Brett, J., Wolitzky, B.A., Norton, C., Plocinski, J., Benjamin, W. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Hypoxemia and blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses in mice lacking heme oxygenase-2. Adachi, T., Ishikawa, K., Hida, W., Matsumoto, H., Masuda, T., Date, F., Ogawa, K., Takeda, K., Furuyama, K., Zhang, Y., Kitamuro, T., Ogawa, H., Maruyama, Y., Shibahara, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. A comparative study on the expression of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase during cerebral ischemia in humans. Tomimoto, H., Shibata, M., Ihara, M., Akiguchi, I., Ohtani, R., Budka, H. Acta Neuropathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of chronic hypoxemia on the regulation of nitric-oxide synthase in the fetal sheep brain. Aguan, K., Murotsuki, J., Gagnon, R., Thompson, L.P., Weiner, C.P. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Improved recognition of cor pulmonale in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Himelman, R.B., Struve, S.N., Brown, J.K., Namnum, P., Schiller, N.B. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Use of transcutaneous oxygen sensors to titrate PEEP. Tremper, K.K., Waxman, K., Shoemaker, W.C. Ann. Surg. (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Leflunomide prevents alveolar fluid clearance inhibition by respiratory syncytial virus. Davis, I.C., Lazarowski, E.R., Hickman-Davis, J.M., Fortenberry, J.A., Chen, F.P., Zhao, X., Sorscher, E., Graves, L.M., Sullender, W.M., Matalon, S. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Neurologic and electroencephalographic correlates in glutethimide intoxication. Myers, R.R., Stockard, J.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Efficacy of pulse oximetry and capnometry in postoperative ventilatory weaning. Niehoff, J., DelGuercio, C., LaMorte, W., Hughes-Grasberger, S.L., Heard, S., Dennis, R., Yeston, N. Crit. Care Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
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