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COMA  -  Cogan-type congential oculomotor apraxia

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of COMA

  • RESULTS: COMA was successfully applied to the genetic classification of HIV-1 and HCV strains into phylogenetic lineages or subtypes [1].
  • The COMA, a PCR capture technique with colorimetric signal detection, was used with HIV reference subtype strains as well as regional (East Africa) HIV strains for subtype identification [2].
  • During the second world war there were large changes in consumption of fats, fibre, and sugar in Britain. These changes matched recent recommendations made by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) with the object of reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) [3].
  • Here, we report the case of a 6-month-old girl with psychomotor retardation, myopathy and clinical features of COMA, associated with external hydrocephalus and mitochondrial dysfunction (partial deficiency of the respiratory-chain enzyme NADH dehydrogenase) [4].
  • Overlapping 3q28 amplifications in the COMA cell line and undifferentiated primary sarcoma [5].

Psychiatry related information on COMA

  • Unusual computed tomographic findings were observed in four patients with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) [6].
  • The median interval between the onset of major symptoms (vomiting and lethargy, seizures, and coma) and diagnosis was 16 months (range, 1 to 142) [7].
  • The outpatients refused life-sustaining treatments in 71 percent of their responses to options in the four scenarios (coma with chance of recovery, 57 percent; persistent vegetative state, 85 percent; dementia, 79 percent; and dementia with a terminal illness, 87 percent), with small differences between widely differing types of treatments [8].
  • METHODS: In a prospective study, we evaluated 2108 patients from 24 U.S. institutions for two general categories of neurologic outcome: type I (focal injury, or stupor or coma at discharge) and type II (deterioration in intellectual function, memory deficit, or seizures) [9].
  • PATIENTS: One hundred twenty active-duty military personnel who had sustained a moderate-to-severe closed head injury, manifested by a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 or less, or posttraumatic amnesia lasting at least 24 hours, or focal cerebral contusion or hemorrhage on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging [10].

High impact information on COMA

  • One third had severe attacks with coma, prolonged hemiplegia, or both, with full recovery [11].
  • METHODS: The study subjects were 392 patients 16 to 65 years of age with coma after sustaining closed head injuries who were randomly assigned to be treated with hypothermia (body temperature, 33 degrees C), which was initiated within 6 hours after injury and maintained for 48 hours by means of surface cooling, or normothermia [12].
  • METHODS: In the first phase of the study, we recorded clinical findings in 520 consecutive patients with minor head injury who had a normal score on the Glasgow Coma Scale and normal findings on a brief neurologic examination; the patients then underwent CT [13].
  • CTLN2 patients (1/100,000 in Japan) suffer from a disturbance of consciousness and coma, and most die with cerebral edema within a few years of onset [14].
  • In seven patients the brain-stem infection produced transient myoclonus followed by the rapid onset of respiratory distress, cyanosis, poor peripheral perfusion, shock, coma, loss of the doll's eye reflex, and apnea (grade III disease); five of these patients died within 12 hours after admission [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of COMA


Biological context of COMA


Anatomical context of COMA

  • The COMA electrodes showed a mean value of 2.1 pH units higher than the glass electrodes, corresponding to a pO2 level in the esophagus of 10 kPa [23].
  • Both these findings are in contradistinction to prior reports of central nervous system abnormalities and motor and speech difficulties in COMA [24].
  • The pathogenesis of COMA remains unknown and it is possible that agenesis of the corpus callosum and cerebellar hypoplasia are markers indicative of early CNS maldevelopment and not an integral part of the mechanism of COMA [25].
  • Two and one half years after the first signs of COMA, a fourth ventricle medulloblastoma appeared [26].
  • Horizontal displacement of the pineal body of 0 to 3 mm from the midline was associated with alertness, 3 to 4 mm with drowsiness, 6 to 8.5 mm with stupor, and 8 to 13 mm with coma [27].

Associations of COMA with chemical compounds

  • METHODS: An electrode of purified, crystallographically orientated monocrystalline antimony (COMA) connected to a reference electrode (silver-silver chloride) was used for the P measurements [28].
  • In view of this finding, we recommend that tests to characterize patients with COMA should include determination of blood levels of lactic and pyruvic acid [4].
  • Sucrose and dental caries--considerations of the COMA panel [29].
  • We studied 26 children with inborn errors of urea synthesis who survived neonatal hyperammonemic coma [30].
  • Patients under 30 years of age and with a Glasgow coma score above 10 had the best outcome with acyclovir treatment [31].

Other interactions of COMA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of COMA

  • Envelope amplification products were also used for analysis in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay, called the combinatorial melting assay (COMA) [2].
  • Since the major reviews on diet and cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and by the British Department of Health's Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) in 1997 and 1998, additional epidemiological studies relating (red) meat consumption and colorectal cancer have been published or found by search [33].
  • The results of the COMA (COmbining Monteplase with Angioplasty) trial, suggest that monteplase administration prior to emergent PCI in AMI improves 6-month outcomes and possibly the long-term prognosis of myocardial infarction [34].
  • The majority of intervention studies, which found associations between various conditions and the intake of fish oils or their derivatives, used n-3 intakes well above the 0.2 g day(-1) recommended by Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) [35].
  • At admission, these patients more often had a history of vomiting (P=0.047) and a score of 12 or lower on the Glasgow Coma Scale (P=0.02) than the others; a trend toward a greater prevalence of seizures at admission was also evident in this group (P=0.07) [36].


  1. Genotyping HIV-1 and HCV strains by a combinatorial DNA melting assay (COMA). Kostrikis, L.G., Shin, S., Ho, D.D. Mol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains in Kenya: a comparison using phylogenetic analysis and a combinatorial melting assay. Robbins, K.E., Kostrikis, L.G., Brown, T.M., Anzala, O., Shin, S., Plummer, F.A., Kalish, M.L. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Diet and coronary heart disease in England and Wales during and after the second world war. Barker, D.J., Osmond, C. Journal of epidemiology and community health. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Congenital ocular motor apraxia associated with myopathy, external hydrocephalus and NADH dehydrogenase deficiency. Puñal, J.E., Rodríguez, E., Pintos, E., Campos, Y., Castro-Gago, M. Brain Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Overlapping 3q28 amplifications in the COMA cell line and undifferentiated primary sarcoma. Hussenet, T., Mallem, N., Redon, R., Jost, B., Aurias, A., du Manoir, S. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Computed tomography in congenital ocular motor apraxia. Eda, I., Takashima, S., Kitahara, T., Ohno, K., Takeshita, K. Neuroradiology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Natural history of symptomatic partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Rowe, P.C., Newman, S.L., Brusilow, S.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Advance directives for medical care--a case for greater use. Emanuel, L.L., Barry, M.J., Stoeckle, J.D., Ettelson, L.M., Emanuel, E.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Adverse cerebral outcomes after coronary bypass surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group and the Ischemia Research and Education Foundation Investigators. Roach, G.W., Kanchuger, M., Mangano, C.M., Newman, M., Nussmeier, N., Wolman, R., Aggarwal, A., Marschall, K., Graham, S.H., Ley, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: A randomized trial. Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program (DVHIP) Study Group. Salazar, A.M., Warden, D.L., Schwab, K., Spector, J., Braverman, S., Walter, J., Cole, R., Rosner, M.M., Martin, E.M., Ecklund, J., Ellenbogen, R.G. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. The clinical spectrum of familial hemiplegic migraine associated with mutations in a neuronal calcium channel. Ducros, A., Denier, C., Joutel, A., Cecillon, M., Lescoat, C., Vahedi, K., Darcel, F., Vicaut, E., Bousser, M.G., Tournier-Lasserve, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Lack of effect of induction of hypothermia after acute brain injury. Clifton, G.L., Miller, E.R., Choi, S.C., Levin, H.S., McCauley, S., Smith, K.R., Muizelaar, J.P., Wagner, F.C., Marion, D.W., Luerssen, T.G., Chesnut, R.M., Schwartz, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Indications for computed tomography in patients with minor head injury. Haydel, M.J., Preston, C.A., Mills, T.J., Luber, S., Blaudeau, E., DeBlieux, P.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. The gene mutated in adult-onset type II citrullinaemia encodes a putative mitochondrial carrier protein. Kobayashi, K., Sinasac, D.S., Iijima, M., Boright, A.P., Begum, L., Lee, J.R., Yasuda, T., Ikeda, S., Hirano, R., Terazono, H., Crackower, M.A., Kondo, I., Tsui, L.C., Scherer, S.W., Saheki, T. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Neurologic complications in children with enterovirus 71 infection. Huang, C.C., Liu, C.C., Chang, Y.C., Chen, C.Y., Wang, S.T., Yeh, T.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Effectiveness of moderate dose combination chemotherapy in Burkitt's lymphoma. Patel, J.G., Pandita, R., al-Jazzaf, H., Mechl, Z., al-Jarallah, M.A. Neoplasma (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Brain glucose uptake and unawareness of hypoglycemia in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Boyle, P.J., Kempers, S.F., O'Connor, A.M., Nagy, R.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Acute renal failure and coma after a high dose of oral acyclovir. Eck, P., Silver, S.M., Clark, E.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of dexamethasone in primary supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Poungvarin, N., Bhoopat, W., Viriyavejakul, A., Rodprasert, P., Buranasiri, P., Sukondhabhant, S., Hensley, M.J., Strom, B.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Concentration of 3', 5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of patients with prolonged coma after head trauma or intracranial hemorrhage. Rudman, D., Fleischer, A., Kutner, M.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. The human kinetochore proteins Nnf1R and Mcm21R are required for accurate chromosome segregation. McAinsh, A.D., Meraldi, P., Draviam, V.M., Toso, A., Sorger, P.K. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Establishment of a human malignant fibrous histiocytoma cell line, COMA. Characterization By conventional cytogenetics, comparative genomic hybridization, and multiplex fluorescence In situ hybridization. Mairal, A., Chibon, F., Rousselet, A., Couturier, J., Terrier, P., Aurias, A. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Variations in esophageal oxygen tension measured with intraluminal antimony electrodes. Tibbling, L., Sjöberg, F. Dysphagia. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Congenital ocular motor apraxia: sporadic and familial. Support for natural resolution. Prasad, P., Nair, S. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Congenital ocular motor apraxia. Fielder, A.R., Gresty, M.A., Dodd, K.L., Mellor, D.H., Levene, M.I. Transactions of the ophthalmological societies of the United Kingdom. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Variants of congenital ocular motor apraxia: associations with hydrocephalus, pontocerebellar tumor, and a deficit of vertical saccades. Anteby, I., Lee, B., Noetzel, M., Tychsen, L. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Lateral displacement of the brain and level of consciousness in patients with an acute hemispheral mass. Ropper, A.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Dual mode antimony electrode for simultaneous measurements of PO2 and pH. Sjöberg, F., Nilsson, G. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Sucrose and dental caries--considerations of the COMA panel. Hobdell, M.H. Journal of the Irish Dental Association. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Neurologic outcome in children with inborn errors of urea synthesis. Outcome of urea-cycle enzymopathies. Msall, M., Batshaw, M.L., Suss, R., Brusilow, S.W., Mellits, E.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Vidarabine versus acyclovir therapy in herpes simplex encephalitis. Whitley, R.J., Alford, C.A., Hirsch, M.S., Schooley, R.T., Luby, J.P., Aoki, F.Y., Hanley, D., Nahmias, A.J., Soong, S.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. A new thrombolytic agent, monteplase, is independent of the plasminogen activator inhibitor in patients with acute myocardial infarction: initial results of the COmbining Monteplase with Angioplasty (COMA) trial. Inoue, T., Yaguchi, I., Takayanagi, K., Hayashi, T., Morooka, S., Eguchi, Y. Am. Heart J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel. Truswell, A.S. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Therapeutic potential of monteplase in acute myocardial infarction. Inoue, T., Nishiki, R., Kageyama, M., Node, K. American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. The health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a review of the evidence. Ruxton, C.H., Reed, S.C., Simpson, M.J., Millington, K.J. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. La Crosse encephalitis in children. McJunkin, J.E., de los Reyes, E.C., Irazuzta, J.E., Caceres, M.J., Khan, R.R., Minnich, L.L., Fu, K.D., Lovett, G.D., Tsai, T., Thompson, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
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