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MeSH Review

Vaccinium myrtillus

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High impact information on Vaccinium myrtillus

  • Studies in which singlet oxygen was generated by endoperoxide in the presence of A2E revealed that vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, resveratrol, the trolox analogue, and bilberry reduced A2E-epoxidation by quenching singlet oxygen [1].
  • The expression of flavonoid pathway genes in the color mutants of bilberry was reduced [2].
  • Expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in relation to anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin, and flavonol levels during bilberry fruit development [2].
  • The cDNA fragments of five genes from the flavonoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase, were isolated from bilberry using the polymerase chain reaction technique, sequenced, and labeled with a digoxigenin-dUTP label [2].
  • Bilberry anthocyanins were also efficiently absorbed, but absorption varied greatly (19-37%) according to the anthocyanin structure; delphinidin glycosides were the most absorbed [3].

Biological context of Vaccinium myrtillus


Anatomical context of Vaccinium myrtillus

  • Six berry extracts (wild blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seeds, and strawberry) were studied for antioxidant efficacy, cytotoxic potential, cellular uptake, and anti-angiogenic (the ability to reduce unwanted growth of blood vessels, which can lead to varicose veins and tumor formation) properties [5].

Associations of Vaccinium myrtillus with chemical compounds

  • High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the separation of anthocyanins on a preparative scale from bilberry fruit crude extract (Vaccinium myrtillus, Ericaceae) with a biphasic solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether-n-butanol-acetonitrile-water-trifluoroacetic acid (1:4:1:5:0.01, v/v) [6].
  • Of the extracts tested, that from bilberry contained the largest amounts of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins, and showed the greatest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity [4].
  • Bog whortleberry procyanidin fraction was less active, this being mainly due to the lower content of these compounds [7].
  • Incomplete absorption was found following the ingestion of apple juice (5/5), grape juice (10/10) and bilberry juice (8/10), although the last two contain equivalent concentrations of fructose and glucose [8].
  • Among ethanol extracts of 10 edible berries, bilberry extract was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL60 human leukemia cells and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells in vitro [4].

Gene context of Vaccinium myrtillus

  • Bilberry and raspberry phenolics exhibited the best overall antioxidant activity toward protein oxidation [9].
  • A commercially available wild blueberry (Bilberry) extract was dissolved in different concentrations of TFA (0.1, 1, 3, 9%), then was subjected to thermodecomposition reaction at 95 degrees C. After the reaction, the samples were analyzed by CZE [10].
  • Bilberry plants were subjected to +2 degrees C and +18 degrees C in Exp. I or +5/0 degrees C (day/night) and +18/+13 degrees C (day/night) in Exp. II. GST activities were assessed using either 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) or trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) as substrates [11].
  • Six berry extracts (wild blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seeds and strawberry), singly and in combination, were studied in our laboratories for antioxidant efficacy, cytotoxic potential, cellular uptake and anti-angiogenic properties [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vaccinium myrtillus

  • An HPLC method using isocratic elution was established for the analysis of fifteen anthocyanins contained in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Separation was attained by using an aqueous solution of 20% methanol containing 0.5% TFA as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 2 ml/min [13].


  1. A2E-epoxides damage DNA in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Vitamin E and other antioxidants inhibit A2E-epoxide formation. Sparrow, J.R., Vollmer-Snarr, H.R., Zhou, J., Jang, Y.P., Jockusch, S., Itagaki, Y., Nakanishi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in relation to anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin, and flavonol levels during bilberry fruit development. Jaakola, L., Määttä, K., Pirttilä, A.M., Törrönen, R., Kärenlampi, S., Hohtola, A. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Anthocyanins are efficiently absorbed from the stomach in anesthetized rats. Talavéra, S., Felgines, C., Texier, O., Besson, C., Lamaison, J.L., Rémésy, C. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the anthocyanins. Katsube, N., Iwashita, K., Tsushida, T., Yamaki, K., Kobori, M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula. Bagchi, D., Sen, C.K., Bagchi, M., Atalay, M. Biochemistry Mosc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation of two anthocyanin sambubiosides from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) by high-speed counter-current chromatography. Du, Q., Jerz, G., Winterhalter, P. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Catechins and procyanidins in berries of vaccinium species and their antioxidant activity. Määttä-Riihinen, K.R., Kähkönen, M.P., Törrönen, A.R., Heinonen, I.M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Fruit juice malabsorption: not only fructose. Hoekstra, J.H., van den Aker, J.H., Hartemink, R., Kneepkens, C.M. Acta Paediatr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation in liposomes by berry phenolics. Viljanen, K., Kylli, P., Kivikari, R., Heinonen, M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Acid mediated hydrolysis of blueberry anthocyanins. Ichiyanagi, T., Oikawa, K., Tateyama, C., Konishi, T. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Anthocyanins and glutathione S-transferase activities in response to low temperature and frost hardening in Vaccinium myrtillus (L.). Taulavuori, E., Tahkokorpi, M., Taulavuori, K., Laine, K. J. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Safety and whole-body antioxidant potential of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation of edible berries. Bagchi, D., Roy, S., Patel, V., He, G., Khanna, S., Ojha, N., Phillips, C., Ghosh, S., Bagchi, M., Sen, C.K. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Structural dependence of HPLC separation pattern of anthocyanins from Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Ichiyanagi, T., Hatano, Y., Matsugo, S., Konishi, T. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2004) [Pubmed]
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