The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Dromaiidae

  • Mice carrying Myc(His) just 5' of the intronic heavy-chain enhancer Emu (strain iMyc(Emu)) provide a specific model of the type of T(12;15) found in a subset (approximately 20%) of plasmacytomas that develop "spontaneously" in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of interleukin-6 transgenic BALB/c (C) mice [1].
  • Corroborating these findings, in vivo Emu; K cyclin expression cooperates with p53 loss in the induction of lymphomas [2].

High impact information on Dromaiidae

  • To examine the role of p21ras in the development of B lymphocytes, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of Ras in B lymphocyte progenitors, using a novel transcriptional element consisting of the Emu enhancer and the lck proximal promoter [3].
  • DNA sequence comparisons between a CR1 element isolated from a sarus crane (Grus antigone) and those isolated from an emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) showed that two short highly conserved regions are present [4].
  • When the 3'KE/Bcl-XL mouse was crossed to an Emu/c-Myc transgenic mouse, median survival of double transgenic progeny was 5.5 weeks [5].
  • Cotransfection with Cux/CDP represses the activity of Emu via the MAR sequences in both B and non-B cells [6].
  • To elucidate the roles of PD(Q52) and Emu in the regulation of IgH locus accessibility, we generated mice with targeted deletions of these elements [7].

Biological context of Dromaiidae


Associations of Dromaiidae with chemical compounds


Gene context of Dromaiidae

  • As cyclin D1 mutants that are refractory to nuclear export display heighten oncogenicity in vitro compared with WT D1, we generated mice expressing FLAG-D1/T286A, a constitutively nuclear mutant, under the control of the immunoglobulin enhancer, Emu [16].
  • We suggest a model whereby Emu/MARS enhances mitotic GC at the endogenous IgH mu locus by effecting chromatin modifications in adjacent DNA [17].
  • This confirms previous results obtained with chromosomally integrated substrates, except for the finding that the full length 3' MAR of Emu stimulates V(D)J recombination in an episomal but not in a chromosomal context [18].
  • The same observation was made in the rhea and in the newly sequenced NADH3 gene of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae [19].
  • To define the potential role of Emu plus MAR in class switch recombination (CSR), we generated IgG-expressing hybridomas from B cells heterozygous for mutations that delete all of these elements or replace them with a neo(r) gene and analyzed the switch status of the mutated IgH loci [20].


  1. Insertion of Myc into Igh accelerates peritoneal plasmacytomas in mice. Park, S.S., Shaffer, A.L., Kim, J.S., duBois, W., Potter, M., Staudt, L.M., Janz, S. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The oncogenic potential of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus cyclin is exposed by p53 loss in vitro and in vivo. Verschuren, E.W., Klefstrom, J., Evan, G.I., Jones, N. Cancer Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Control of B cell development by Ras-mediated activation of Raf. Iritani, B.M., Forbush, K.A., Farrar, M.A., Perlmutter, R.M. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Sequence conservation in avian CR1: an interspersed repetitive DNA family evolving under functional constraints. Chen, Z.Q., Ritzel, R.G., Lin, C.C., Hodgetts, R.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Targeted overexpression of Bcl-XL in B-lymphoid cells results in lymphoproliferative disease and plasma cell malignancies. Linden, M., Kirchhof, N., Carlson, C., Van Ness, B. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Cux/CDP homeoprotein is a component of NF-muNR and represses the immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer by antagonizing the bright transcription activator. Wang, Z., Goldstein, A., Zong, R.T., Lin, D., Neufeld, E.J., Scheuermann, R.H., Tucker, P.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of IgH gene assembly: role of the intronic enhancer and 5'DQ52 region in targeting DHJH recombination. Afshar, R., Pierce, S., Bolland, D.J., Corcoran, A., Oltz, E.M. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of the intronic elements in the endogenous immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Either the matrix attachment regions or the core enhancer is sufficient to maintain expression. Wiersma, E.J., Ronai, D., Berru, M., Tsui, F.W., Shulman, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A region of the 20 bp repeats lies 3' of human Ig Calpha1 and Calpha2 genes. Chen, C., Birshtein, B.K. Int. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional motifs in the IgH enhancer of the channel catfish. Magor, B.G., Ross, D.A., Middleton, D.L., Warr, G.W. Immunogenetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Intravenous pharmacokinetics of penicillin G and antipyrine in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Clarke, C.R., Kocan, A.A., Webb, A.I., Wang, Z., Cudd, L.A. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular basis of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB in emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): an avian model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B. Aronovich, E.L., Johnston, J.M., Wang, P., Giger, U., Whitley, C.B. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Photoperiodic control of the concentration of luteinizing hormone, prolactin and testosterone in the male emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a bird that breeds on short days. Blache, D., Talbot, R.T., Blackberry, M.A., Williams, K.M., Martin, G.B., Sharp, P.J. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Disposition of single-dose intravenously administered amikacin in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Helmick, K.E., Boothe, D.M., Jensen, J.M. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Disposition of single-dose intravenously administered enrofloxacin in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Helmick, K.E., Boothe, D.M., Jensen, J.M. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of constitutively nuclear cyclin D1 in murine lymphocytes induces B-cell lymphoma. Gladden, A.B., Woolery, R., Aggarwal, P., Wasik, M.A., Diehl, J.A. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Cis-acting regulatory sequences promote high-frequency gene conversion between repeated sequences in mammalian cells. Raynard, S.J., Baker, M.D. Nucleic Acids Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. V(D)J recombination frequency is affected by the sequence interposed between a pair of recombination signals: sequence comparison reveals a putative recombinational enhancer element. Roch, F.A., Hobi, R., Berchtold, M.W., Kuenzle, C.C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhea americana and early avian divergences. Härlid, A., Janke, A., Arnason, U. J. Mol. Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Deletion of the IgH intronic enhancer and associated matrix-attachment regions decreases, but does not abolish, class switching at the mu locus. Bottaro, A., Young, F., Chen, J., Serwe, M., Sablitzky, F., Alt, F.W. Int. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities