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Chemical Compound Review

Baytril     1-cyclopropyl-7-(4- ethylpiperazin-1-yl)-6...

Synonyms: CFPQ, ERFX, Enrofloxacin, Enrofloxacine, Enrofloxacino, ...
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Disease relevance of Enrofloxacin

  • When Vaccinia topoisomerase I is presented with relaxed DNA in the presence of enrofloxacin, it executes the reverse reaction, supercoiling the DNA [1].
  • From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin [2].
  • Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides and Synergy with Enrofloxacin against Mycoplasma pulmonis [3].
  • Chicks were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 and treated 1 week later with enrofloxacin at the recommended dose for 5 days (water dose adjusted to give 10 mg/kg of body weight of birds or equivalence, i.e., water at 50 ppm) or at 2.5 or 5 times the recommended dose for 2 days or 1 day, respectively [4].
  • Modification of Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimens for Poultry Experimentally Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 To Minimize Selection of Resistance [4].

Psychiatry related information on Enrofloxacin

  • Concentrations of enrofloxacin equivalent activity were determined (by microbiological assay) in the serum of normal camels and camels at the end of a 14-day water-deprivation period following single intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administrations at 2.5 mg/kg [5].
  • Since the bitter taste of enrofloxacin apparently limit the patient compliance in the oral formulations of the antibacterial agent, the masking of the taste is essential for the improvement of the therapeutic effectiveness [6].

High impact information on Enrofloxacin


Chemical compound and disease context of Enrofloxacin


Biological context of Enrofloxacin


Anatomical context of Enrofloxacin


Associations of Enrofloxacin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Enrofloxacin

  • Isolates with a single mutation in gyrA showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for CIP (<or=0.5 to 0.75 microg/ml), ENO (1 to 4 microg/ml) and NOR (0.75 to 4 microg/ml) [22].
  • However, the isolates with two mutation in gyrA regardless of whether there was a mutation in parC showed high MIC for the three fluoroquinolones (CIP, 0.75 to 32 <or=microg/ml; ENO, 3 to 32 <or=microg/ml; NOR, 3 to 32 <or=microg/ml ) [22].
  • We hypothesize that morphological changes and inhibition of cell proliferation are a result of impaired production of biglycan and decorin, proteoglycans involved in fibrillogenesis of collagen, the most important structural component of the tendon of enrofloxacin-treated tendon cells [23].
  • No resistance was detected for amoxicillin-clavulanate, oxacillin, enrofloxacin and kanamycin-cephalexin. beta-Lactamase production and resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics were usually correlated [24].
  • In vivo selection of reduced enrofloxacin susceptibility in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and its resistance-related mutations in gyrA [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Enrofloxacin


  1. Fluoroquinolone-dependent DNA supercoiling by Vaccinia topoisomerase I. Kamau, E., Grove, A. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves. Orden, J.A., Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J.A., García, S., Cid, D., De La Fuente, R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides and Synergy with Enrofloxacin against Mycoplasma pulmonis. Fassi Fehri, L., Wróblewski, H., Blanchard, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Modification of Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimens for Poultry Experimentally Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 To Minimize Selection of Resistance. Randall, L.P., Cooles, S.W., Coldham, N.C., Stapleton, K.S., Piddock, L.J., Woodward, M.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of water deprivation on the disposition kinetics of enrofloxacin in camels. Gavrielli, R., Yagil, R., Ziv, G., Creveld, C.V., Glickman, A. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Preparation and characterization of enrofloxacin/carbopol complex in aqueous solution. Chun, M.K., Choi, H.K. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Flow cytometric determination of the effects of antibacterial agents on Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type. Assunção, P., Antunes, N.T., Rosales, R.S., Poveda, C., Poveda, J.B., Davey, H.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Long depletion time of enrofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Lucchetti, D., Fabrizi, L., Guandalini, E., Podestà, E., Marvasi, L., Zaghini, A., Coni, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A fluoroquinolone induces a novel mitogen-encoding bacteriophage in Streptococcus canis. Ingrey, K.T., Ren, J., Prescott, J.F. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and danofloxacin in plasma, inflammatory exudate, and bronchial secretions of calves following subcutaneous administration. McKellar, Q., Gibson, I., Monteiro, A., Bregante, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy of enrofloxacin or doxycycline for treatment of Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in cats. Kordick, D.L., Papich, M.G., Breitschwerdt, E.B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of four quinolones, oxolinic acid, flumequine, sarafloxacin, and enrofloxacin, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) held in seawater at 10 degrees C. Martinsen, B., Horsberg, T.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Efficacy of chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, and tetracycline for treatment of experimental Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs. Breitschwerdt, E.B., Davidson, M.G., Aucoin, D.P., Levy, M.G., Szabados, N.S., Hegarty, B.C., Kuehne, A.L., James, R.L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Evidence for active efflux as the primary mechanism of resistance to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Giraud, E., Cloeckaert, A., Kerboeuf, D., Chaslus-Dancla, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Effective treatment of mycoplasma contamination in cell lines with enrofloxacin (Baytril). Fleckenstein, E., Uphoff, C.C., Drexler, H.G. Leukemia (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of enrofloxacin on porcine phagocytic function. Schoevers, E.J., van Leengoed, L.A., Verheijden, J.H., Niewold, T.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma hyorhinis to membrane-active peptides and enrofloxacin in human tissue cell cultures. Nir-Paz, R., Prévost, M.C., Nicolas, P., Blanchard, A., Wróblewski, H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Determination of residues of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in chicken muscle by capillary electrophoresis using laser-induced fluorescence detection. Horstkötter, C., Jiménez-Lozano, E., Barrón, D., Barbosa, J., Blaschke, G. Electrophoresis (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Differences in antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from farm and pet animals. Butaye, P., Devriese, L.A., Haesebrouck, F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition of Cryptosporidium parvum in neonatal Hsd:(ICR)BR Swiss miceby polyether ionophores and aromatic amidines. Blagburn, B.L., Sundermann, C.A., Lindsay, D.S., Hall, J.E., Tidwell, R.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Influence of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection and dexamethasone on the pharmacokinetic parameters of enrofloxacin. Post, L.O., Cope, C.V., Farrell, D.E., Baker, J.D., Myers, M.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Fluoroquinolone resistance and gyrA and parC mutations of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken. Lee, Y.J., Cho, J.K., Kim, K.S., Tak, R.B., Kim, A.R., Kim, J.W., Im, S.K., Kim, B.H. J. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. The effect of enrofloxacin on cell proliferation and proteoglycans in horse tendon cells. Yoon, J.H., Brooks, R.L., Khan, A., Pan, H., Bryan, J., Zhang, J., Budsberg, S.C., Mueller, P.O., Halper, J. Cell Biol. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Antimicrobial susceptibility and coagulase gene typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis cases in Turkey. Güler, L., Ok, U., Gündüz, K., Gülcü, Y., Hadimli, H.H. J. Dairy Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. In vivo selection of reduced enrofloxacin susceptibility in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and its resistance-related mutations in gyrA. Marien, M., Decostere, A., Nauwynck, H., Froyman, R., Devriese, L., Haesebrouck, F. Microb. Drug Resist. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Using nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis to analyze several quinolones in pig kidney samples. Hernández, M., Borrull, F., Calull, M. Electrophoresis (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Rapid selection of quinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni but not in Escherichia coli in individually housed broilers. van Boven, M., Veldman, K.T., de Jong, M.C., Mevius, D.J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
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