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MeSH Review

Startle Reaction

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Disease relevance of Startle Reaction


Psychiatry related information on Startle Reaction


High impact information on Startle Reaction

  • Reflex myoclonic epilepsy in infancy: a new age-dependent idiopathic epileptic syndrome related to startle reaction [3].
  • Application of calcium ionophore A-23187 significantly shortened the time required for reappearance of the startle reaction to a bright light [4].
  • It appeared that the stimulation decreased PPI quantitatively as much as ketamine (6 mg/kg) without an effect of the basic startle reaction [5].
  • Hyperekplexia (HE), or startle disease, is usually a familial disorder associated with mutations in the glycine receptor alpha1 subunit gene (GLRA1), characterised by exaggerated startle reactions to unexpected auditory, somaesthetic and visual stimuli [6].
  • In form and latency the conditioned response was similar to the unconditioned startle reaction of the same animal under chloralose anesthesia, or to its unanesthetized response to a loud sound [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Startle Reaction

  • In 12 patients without a previous startle reaction, atropine had a possible activating effect, however, the result was not significant [8].
  • In the LFS strain, acute exposure to 0.25% (v/v) ethanol inhibited the startle reaction and increased both the area occupied by a group of subjects and the average distance between each fish and its nearest neighbor [9].
  • BRO and MOC exert the inhibitory activity, whereas DEP has an excitatory effect on the startle reaction [10].
  • Dynamics of intracellular dopamine contents in the rat brain during the formation of conditioned contextual fear and extinction of an acoustic startle reaction [11].
  • Reflexes (righting, cliff-avoidance) and hearing startle reaction maturated earlier in nitrate treated groups [12].

Anatomical context of Startle Reaction


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Startle Reaction

  • The influence of physostigmine and atropine on the startle reaction and EEG epileptic paroxysmal activity was examined in 24 severely impaired children with early brain damage [8].


  1. Teratogenic and fetal toxicity following intravenous theophylline administration in pregnant rabbits is related to maternal drug plasma levels. Shibata, M., Wachi, M., Kawaguchi, M., Kojima, J., Onodera, K. Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Microinfusion of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) into the dorsal hippocampus of wistar rats does not affect latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition, but increases startle reaction and locomotor activity. Zhang, W.N., Bast, T., Feldon, J. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Reflex myoclonic epilepsy in infancy: a new age-dependent idiopathic epileptic syndrome related to startle reaction. Ricci, S., Cusmai, R., Fusco, L., Vigevano, F. Epilepsia (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Local application of calcium-modulating agents to a crushed goldfish optic nerve modifies visual recovery. Meiri, H., Grafstein, B. Exp. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Unilateral electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus of rats modifies the prepulse modulation of the startle response (PPI): effects of ketamine and diazepam. Silva, R.C., Sandner, G., Brandão, M.L. Behav. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Frontal lobe dysfunction in sporadic hyperekplexia--case study and literature review. Gaitatzis, A., Kartsounis, L.D., Gacinovic, S., Costa, D.C., Harvey, K., Harvey, R.J., de Silva, R.N. J. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Elaboration of a conditioned reflex in a single experiment with simultaneous recording of neural activity. Voronin, L.L., Gerstein, G.L., Kudryashov, I.E., Ioffe, S.V. Brain Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of the startle reaction by physostigmine in patients with early brain damage. Rektor, I., Svejdová, M. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Ethanol effects on three strains of zebrafish: model system for genetic investigations. Dlugos, C.A., Rabin, R.A. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects of single and repeated administration of MAO inhibitors on acoustic startle response in rats. Zajaczkowski, W., Górka, Z. Polish journal of pharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Dynamics of intracellular dopamine contents in the rat brain during the formation of conditioned contextual fear and extinction of an acoustic startle reaction. Storozheva, Z.I., Afanas'ev, I.I., Proshin, A.T., Kudrin, V.S. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Nitrate induced changes in sensoro-motor development and learning behaviour in rats. Markel, E., Nyakas, C., Ormai, S. Acta physiologica Hungarica. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. The startle reaction to an acoustic stimulus in the rat: the effect of noradrenaline administered by microinjection into the pontomedullary reticular formation. Pavlásek, J. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Middle ear reflex activity in the startle reaction. Greisen, O., Neergaard, E.B. Archives of otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1975) [Pubmed]
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