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MeSH Review

Reticular Formation

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Disease relevance of Reticular Formation


Psychiatry related information on Reticular Formation


High impact information on Reticular Formation


Chemical compound and disease context of Reticular Formation


Biological context of Reticular Formation


Anatomical context of Reticular Formation


Associations of Reticular Formation with chemical compounds

  • With this model, a REM sleep-like state was reliably produced by microinjecting the cholinergic agonist carbachol directly into the pontine reticular formation of the cat [31].
  • GABA transmission in the deep layers of the superior colliculus/deep mesencephalic reticular formation (deep SC/Me) mediates several motor responses, including those expressed after systemic administration of dopamine agonists [27].
  • We also tested whether EAA antagonists block EPSPs evoked by stimulation of the contralateral reticular formation in the slices. mPRF neurons responded to both non-NMDA and NMDA agonists [32].
  • The ventrolateral portion of the intermediate reticular formation of the medulla (ventrolateral medulla, VLM), including the C1/A1 groups of catecholaminergic neurons, is thought to be involved in control of sympathetic cardiovascular outflow, cardiorespiratory interactions, and reflex control of vasopressin release [33].
  • Stimulation of the contralateral reticular formation elicited EPSPs that were depressed by the general EAA antagonist kynurenate [32].

Gene context of Reticular Formation


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Reticular Formation


  1. Progressive supranuclear palsy: loss of choline-acetyltransferase-like immunoreactive neurons in the pontine reticular formation. Malessa, S., Hirsch, E.C., Cervera, P., Javoy-Agid, F., Duyckaerts, C., Hauw, J.J., Agid, Y. Neurology (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Alumina cream-induced focal motor seizures in cats: bilateral lesions of the mesencephalic reticular formation. Velasco, M., Velasco, F., Cepeda, C., Márquez, I., Estrada-Villanueva, F. Exp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Movement induced in cataleptic rats: differential effects produced by electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and reticular formation. Mickley, G.A., Teitelbaum, H. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. DDT myoclonus: sites and mechanism of action. Chung, E., Van Woert, M.H. Exp. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. The pharmacological properties of CS-722, a newly synthesized centrally acting muscle relaxant. Tanabe, M., Kaneko, T., Tonohiro, T., Iwata, N. Neuropharmacology (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Investigations into the neurologic basis of narcolepsy. Guilleminault, C., Heinzer, R., Mignot, E., Black, J. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Pontine microinjection of carbachol does not reliably enhance paradoxical sleep in rats. Deurveilher, S., Hars, B., Hennevin, E. Sleep. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. M2 muscarinic receptors in pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse contribute to rapid eye movement sleep generation. Coleman, C.G., Lydic, R., Baghdoyan, H.A. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Importance of the ventrolateral region of the periaqueductal gray and adjacent tegmentum in the control of paradoxical sleep as studied by muscimol microinjections in the cat. Sastre, J.P., Buda, C., Kitahama, K., Jouvet, M. Neuroscience (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Involvement of the midbrain reticular formation in self-injurious behavior, stereotyped behavior, and analgesia induced by intranigral microinjection of muscimol. Baumeister, A.A., Frye, G.D. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Acetylcholine inhibits identified interneurons in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus. McCormick, D.A., Pape, H.C. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Intracellular Cl- accumulation reduces Cl- conductance in inhibitory synaptic channels. Gold, M.R., Martin, A.R. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Central noradrenergic neurones concentrate 3H-oestradiol. Sar, M., Stumpf, W.E. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Assessing the validity of an animal model of deficient sensorimotor gating in schizophrenic patients. Swerdlow, N.R., Braff, D.L., Taaid, N., Geyer, M.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Neurogenic regulation of coronary blood flow: evidence for a central nervous system pathway. Bonham, A.C., Gutterman, D.D., Arthur, J.M., Marcus, M.L., Gebhart, G.F., Brody, M.J. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Dialysis delivery of an adenosine A2A agonist into the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse increases pontine acetylcholine release and sleep. Coleman, C.G., Baghdoyan, H.A., Lydic, R. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Cholinergic regulation of cataplexy in canine narcolepsy in the pontine reticular formation is mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors. Reid, M.S., Tafti, M., Nishino, S., Siegel, J.M., Dement, W.C., Mignot, E. Sleep. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Cholinergic mechanisms in canine narcolepsy--II. Acetylcholine release in the pontine reticular formation is enhanced during cataplexy. Reid, M.S., Siegel, J.M., Dement, W.C., Mignot, E. Neuroscience (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Muscle tone facilitation and inhibition after orexin-a (hypocretin-1) microinjections into the medial medulla. Mileykovskiy, B.Y., Kiyashchenko, L.I., Siegel, J.M. J. Neurophysiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Extracellular serotonin levels in the medullary reticular formation during normal sleep and after REM sleep deprivation. Blanco-Centurion, C.A., Salin-Pascual, R.J. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Distribution of fos-like immunoreactivity in the medullary reticular formation of the rat after gustatory elicited ingestion and rejection behaviors. DiNardo, L.A., Travers, J.B. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and caspase genes promotes neuronal apoptosis in pontine reticular formation after spinal cord transection. Wu, K.L., Chan, S.H., Chao, Y.M., Chan, J.Y. Neurobiol. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of partial lidocaine inactivation of the paramedian pontine reticular formation on saccades of macaques. Barton, E.J., Nelson, J.S., Gandhi, N.J., Sparks, D.L. J. Neurophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Pentylenetetrazol-induced enhancement of reticular formation auditory evoked potentials and acoustic startle responses in the cat. Faingold, C.L., Hoffmann, W.E., Stittsworth, J.D. Neuropharmacology (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of lidocaine and NMDA injections into the medial pontobulbar reticular formation on mastication evoked by cortical stimulation in anaesthetized rabbits. Scott, G., Westberg, K.G., Vrentzos, N., Kolta, A., Lund, J.P. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Localization of acidic fibroblast growth factor in specific subcortical neuronal populations. Stock, A., Kuzis, K., Woodward, W.R., Nishi, R., Eckenstein, F.P. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. GABA in the deep layers of the superior Colliculus/Mesencephalic reticular formation mediates the enhancement of startle by the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 82958 in rats. Meloni, E.G., Davis, M. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Human regional cerebral glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement sleep in relation to waking. Nofzinger, E.A., Buysse, D.J., Miewald, J.M., Meltzer, C.C., Price, J.C., Sembrat, R.C., Ombao, H., Reynolds, C.F., Monk, T.H., Hall, M., Kupfer, D.J., Moore, R.Y. Brain (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Propofol action in both spinal cord and brain blunts electroencephalographic responses to noxious stimulation in goats. Antognini, J.F., Saadi, J., Wang, X.W., Carstens, E., Piercy, M. Sleep. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Excitatory responses of neurones in rat bulbar reticular formation to bulbar raphe stimulation and to iontophoretically applied 5-hydroxytryptamine, and their blockade by LSD 25. Briggs, I. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1977) [Pubmed]
  31. State-dependent hypotonia in posterior cricoarytenoid muscles of the larynx caused by cholinoceptive reticular mechanisms. Lydic, R., Baghdoyan, H.A., Zwillich, C.W. FASEB J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Excitatory amino acid-mediated responses and synaptic potentials in medial pontine reticular formation neurons of the rat in vitro. Stevens, D.R., McCarley, R.W., Greene, R.W. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Depletion of catecholaminergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in multiple systems atrophy with autonomic failure. Benarroch, E.E., Smithson, I.L., Low, P.A., Parisi, J.E. Ann. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Multiple forms of pancreatic polypeptide-related compounds in the lamprey CNS: partial characterization and immunohistochemical localization in the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodin, L., Rawitch, A., Taylor, T., Ohta, Y., Ring, H., Hökfelt, T., Grillner, S., Terenius, L. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Comparative distribution of three opioid systems in the lower brainstem of the monkey (Macaca fuscata). Ibuki, T., Okamura, H., Miyazaki, M., Yanaihara, N., Zimmerman, E.A., Ibata, Y. J. Comp. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Course and targets of the calbindin D-28k subpopulation of primary vestibular afferents. Bäurle, J., Vogten, H., Grüsser-Cornehls, U. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Adrenergic neurons in human brain demonstrated by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT): discovery of a new group in the nucleus tractus solitarius. Kitahama, K., Pearson, J., Denoroy, L., Kopp, N., Ulrich, J., Maeda, T., Jouvet, M. Neurosci. Lett. (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. Global cerebral vasodilatation elicited by focal electrical stimulation within the dorsal medullary reticular formation in anesthetized rat. Iadecola, C., Nakai, M., Arbit, E., Reis, D.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  39. The carbachol-induced enhancement of desynchronized sleep signs is dose dependent and antagonized by centrally administered atropine. Baghdoyan, H.A., Lydic, R., Callaway, C.W., Hobson, J.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (1989) [Pubmed]
  40. Ketamine and MK-801 decrease acetylcholine release in the pontine reticular formation, slow breathing, and disrupt sleep. Lydic, R., Baghdoyan, H.A. Sleep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Suppression of a hind limb flexion withdrawal reflex by microinjection of glutamate or morphine into the periaqueductal gray in the rat. Carstens, E., Hartung, M., Stelzer, B., Zimmermann, M. Pain (1990) [Pubmed]
  42. Transplantation of hypocretin neurons into the pontine reticular formation: preliminary results. Arias-Carrión, O., Murillo-Rodriguez, E., Xu, M., Blanco-Centurion, C., Drucker-Colín, R., Shiromani, P.J. Sleep. (2004) [Pubmed]
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