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Chemical Compound Review

CHLORALOSE     1-[(1R,2R,3R,7R)-2-hydroxy- 7...

Synonyms: Cloralosa, Chloralosum, SureCN1650013, AC1L1DES, BB_NC-0556, ...
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Disease relevance of Anhydroglucochloral


Psychiatry related information on Anhydroglucochloral

  • In form and latency the conditioned response was similar to the unconditioned startle reaction of the same animal under chloralose anesthesia, or to its unanesthetized response to a loud sound [6].
  • The pressor effect of AII at the SFO remained in animals under chloralose anesthesia, demonstrating that it is not an artifact of drinking behavior [7].
  • The differences in the arterial pressure responses to rhythmic contractions may have been partly due to individual differences in the level of anesthesia, because in three cats the pressor responses to this maneuver were converted to depressor responses after giving the cats additional chloralose [8].
  • This study was designed to characterize the regional and systemic hemodynamic and sympathoadrenal responses to heating after 24 and 48 h of water deprivation in chloralose-anesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7 per group) [9].

High impact information on Anhydroglucochloral


Chemical compound and disease context of Anhydroglucochloral

  • To explore time-dependent antiarrhythmic drug-induced conduction slowing in vivo, we used 56-electrode epicardial mapping in chloralose-anesthetized dogs with formalin-induced atrioventricular block [15].
  • On day 7, rats were anesthetized with chloralose/urethane and the left kidney was exposed to a 30-min period of ischemia followed by 90-min reperfusion [16].
  • METHODS: Dose regimens producing stable effects over time were developed, and two dose levels of azimilide (10 and then 20 mg/kg) or dofetilide (0.08 and then 0.16 mg/kg) were administered to morphine/chloralose-anesthetized dogs during sustained vagal atrial fibrillation (AF) [17].
  • DESIGN--Pigs weighing 18-20 kg were anaesthetised with alpha chloralose 100 (n = 9) or thiopentone 30 (n = 9) and the arrhythmogenic effects of coronary artery occlusion were examined by sequential electrocardiographic measurements every 5 min and arrhythmia analysis every minute over a 60 min period [18].
  • 6 Chloralose-induced myoclonus is not similar to 5-HT-sensitive reticular reflex myoclonus in man [19].

Biological context of Anhydroglucochloral

  • After a change in cardiac output, the magnitude of potential blood volume redistribution was investigated in 10 dogs anesthetized with chloralose [20].
  • To establish the mechanism of these rate-dependent negative dromotropic actions, we studied the properties governing AV nodal adaptation to changes in heart rate in chloralose-anesthetized dogs in the absence and presence of bilateral cervical vagal nerve stimulation (20 Hz, 0.2 msec) [21].
  • The effect of sympathetic alpha-receptor coronary vasoconstriction on myocardial oxygen tension was studied in open- and closed-chest, chloralose-anesthetized dogs [22].
  • We have studied the responses to electrical and chemical stimulation of the ventrolateral medulla in the chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated rat [23].
  • Methoxamine, 2 to 4 mg, was infused into the circumflex coronary artery of 23 chloralose-anesthetized open chest dogs, and resulted in a 68% increase in coronary vascular resistance [24].

Anatomical context of Anhydroglucochloral

  • Studies using chow-fed rabbits demonstrated that exposure to chloralose anesthesia (an agent that provokes profound sympathetic activation) induced endothelial injury (indicated by intracellular accumulation of immunoglobulin G in the aortic endothelium) and abnormal (increased) platelet accumulation [25].
  • Chloralose-anesthetized animals were studied by means of sequential pulses applied to the apex of the right ventricular endocardium [26].
  • Static and pulsatile pressure were applied to the isolated carotid sinus of dogs anesthetized with chloralose [27].
  • Studies were performed in vagotomized, chloralose-anesthetized dogs with the carotid baroreceptor reflex intact [28].
  • We stimulated the aortic chemoreceptors in dogs that were anesthetized with chloralose and artificially ventilated by perfusing the isolated aortic arch with venous blood [29].

Associations of Anhydroglucochloral with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Anhydroglucochloral

  • To examine whether incretin hormones, truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 (tGLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are recognized by the hepatic vagal nerve, changes of the impulse discharge rate in the afferent vagus upon their intraportal administrations were measured in situ in rats anesthetized with urethan and chloralose [35].
  • Hyperglycaemia lasting for hours, has been produced in unanesthetized cats, rabbits and rats by injection into the cerebral ventricles or the cisterna magna of a variety of drugs (morphine, etorphine, pethidine, beta-endorphin, enkephalin, bombesin, TRH, cholecystokinin, naloxone, propranolol, phentolamine, chloralose, magnesium chloride and GABA) [36].
  • We studied the effect of brief periods of left atrial-pulmonary vein distention on the rate of renin secretion in sodium-restricted dogs anesthetized with chloralose and breathing spontaneously [37].
  • 2. Synthetic cat gastrin 17NS was continuously injected into chloralose anaesthetized cats and at 1, 10 and 40 min after the start of injection there were significantly greater concentrations of immunoreactive gastrin Component IV than Component III in arterial blood (P less than 0.025 in each case) [38].
  • Plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration in dogs anaesthetized with chloralose was measured by radioimmunoassay and was within the range of 2-5 pg/ml. during control periods [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anhydroglucochloral


  1. Alpha adrenergic contributions to dysrhythmia during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in cats. Sheridan, D.J., Penkoske, P.A., Sobel, B.E., Corr, P.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Electrophysiologic mechanisms underlying arrhythmias due to reperfusion of ischemic myocardium. Pogwizd, S.M., Corr, P.B. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Autonomic control of ventricular tachycardia: sympathetic neural influence on spontaneous tachycardia 24 hours after coronary occlusion. Martins, J.B. Circulation (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Interruption of sympathetic and vagal-mediated afferent responses by transmural myocardial infarction. Barber, M.J., Mueller, T.M., Davies, B.G., Gill, R.M., Zipes, D.P. Circulation (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Distribution of left ventricular sympathetic afferents demonstrated by reflex responses to transmural myocardial ischemia and to intracoronary and epicardial bradykinin. Minisi, A.J., Thames, M.D. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Elaboration of a conditioned reflex in a single experiment with simultaneous recording of neural activity. Voronin, L.L., Gerstein, G.L., Kudryashov, I.E., Ioffe, S.V. Brain Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Subfornical organ: forebrain site of pressor and dipsogenic action of angiotensin II. Mangiapane, M.L., Simpson, J.B. Am. J. Physiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect on arterial pressure of rhythmically contracting the hindlimb muscles of cats. Kaufman, M.P., Rybicki, K.J., Waldrop, T.G., Mitchell, J.H. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Cardiovascular and sympathoadrenal responses to heat stress following water deprivation in rats. Massett, M.P., Johnson, D.G., Kregel, K.C. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Prophylaxis of early ventricular fibrillation by inhibition of acylcarnitine accumulation. Corr, P.B., Creer, M.H., Yamada, K.A., Saffitz, J.E., Sobel, B.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Neuropeptide-Y. A peptide found in human coronary arteries constricts primarily small coronary arteries to produce myocardial ischemia in dogs. Maturi, M.F., Greene, R., Speir, E., Burrus, C., Dorsey, L.M., Markle, D.R., Maxwell, M., Schmidt, W., Goldstein, S.R., Patterson, R.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Central nervous system site of action for the respiratory depressant effect of diacetylmorphine (heroin) in the cat. Taveira da Silva, A.M., Souza, J.D., Quest, J.A., Pagani, F.D., Moerschbaecher, J.M., Buller, A., Hamosh, P., Gillis, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Water extract of Helicobacter pylori inhibits duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion in anesthetized rats. Fändriks, L., von Bothmer, C., Johansson, B., Holm, M., Bölin, I., Pettersson, A. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Reversal of reflex-induced myocardial ischemia by median nerve stimulation: a feline model of electroacupuncture. Li, P., Pitsillides, K.F., Rendig, S.V., Pan, H.L., Longhurst, J.C. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Rate-dependent changes in intraventricular conduction produced by procainamide in anesthetized dogs. A quantitative analysis based on the relation between phase 0 inward current and conduction velocity. Nattel, S., Jing, W. Circ. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of COX inhibitors and NO on renal hemodynamics following ischemia-reperfusion injury in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Knight, S., Johns, E.J. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of the novel antiarrhythmic agent azimilide on experimental atrial fibrillation and atrial electrophysiologic properties. Nattel, S., Liu, L., St-Georges, D. Cardiovasc. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of anaesthesia on acute ischaemic arrhythmias and epicardial electrograms in the pig heart in situ. Bardaji, A., Cinca, J., Worner, F., Schoenenberger, A. Cardiovasc. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Observations on chloralose-induced myoclonus in guinea-pigs. Chadwick, D., Hallett, M., Jenner, P., Marsden, C.D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Autoregulation of cardiac output by passive elastic characteristics of the vascular capacitance system. Rothe, C.F., Gaddis, M.L. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Vagal modulation of the rate-dependent properties of the atrioventricular node. Nayebpour, M., Talajic, M., Villemaire, C., Nattel, S. Circ. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Control of myocardial oxygen tension by sympathetic coronary vasoconstriction in the dog. Feigl, E.O. Circ. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Tonic vasomotor control by the rostral ventrolateral medulla: effect of electrical or chemical stimulation of the area containing C1 adrenaline neurons on arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma catecholamines and vasopressin. Ross, C.A., Ruggiero, D.A., Park, D.H., Joh, T.H., Sved, A.F., Fernandez-Pardal, J., Saavedra, J.M., Reis, D.J. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional consequences and intracoronary localization of alpha-adrenergic stimulation of the canine coronary circulation. Maturi, M.F., Greene, R., Donohue, B., Dorsey, L.M., Green, M.V., Bacharach, S.L., Vitale, D., Patterson, R.E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of sympathoadrenal medullary activation in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Kaplan, J.R., Pettersson, K., Manuck, S.B., Olsson, G. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. The effect of vagus nerve stimulation upon vulnerability of the canine ventricle: role of sympathetic-parasympathetic interactions. Kolman, B.S., Verrier, R.L., Lown, B. Circulation (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Contrasting effects of static and pulsatile pressure on carotid baroreceptor activity in dogs. Chapleau, M.W., Abboud, F.M. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Regional vasomotor responses to the somatopressor reflex from muscle. Nutter, D.O., Wickliffe, C.W. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Responses of the heart to stimulation of aortic body chemoreceptors in dogs. Karim, F., Hainsworth, R., Sofola, O.A., Wood, L.M. Circ. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Neurally mediated negative inotropic effect impairs myocardial function during cholinergic coronary vasoconstriction in pigs. Cinca, J., Carreño, A., Mont, L., Blanch, P., Soler-Soler, J. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Hemodynamic and microvascular responses in the hindquarters during the development of renal hypertension in rats. Evidence for the involvement of an autoregulatory component. Meininger, G.A., Lubrano, V.M., Granger, H.J. Circ. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Cardiac electrophysiological actions of the histamine H1-receptor antagonists astemizole and terfenadine compared with chlorpheniramine and pyrilamine. Salata, J.J., Jurkiewicz, N.K., Wallace, A.A., Stupienski, R.F., Guinosso, P.J., Lynch, J.J. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Effects of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion on the idioventricular rate in anesthetized dogs. Krishnan, S., Levy, M.N. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of topically administered epinephrine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine on cerebrocortical circulation and the NAD/NADH redox state. Dóra, E., Kovách, A.G. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. The hepatic vagal nerve is receptive to incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1, but not to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, in the portal vein. Nishizawa, M., Nakabayashi, H., Uchida, K., Nakagawa, A., Niijima, A. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Hyperglycaemia: imitating Claude Bernard's piqûre with drugs. Feldberg, W., Pyke, D., Stubbs, W.A. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  37. Reflex suppression of renin secretion during distention of cardiopulmonary receptors in dogs. Zehr, J.E., Hasbargen, J.A., Kurz, K.D. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. A possible origin of circulating gastrin component IV in cats. Blair, E.L., Grund, E.R., Lund, P.K., Sanders, D.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1977) [Pubmed]
  39. Plasma vasopressin concentration in the anaesthetized dog before, during and after atrial distension. Ledsome, J.R., Ngsee, J., Wilson, N. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  40. Vagal cardiopulmonary reflexes after total cardiac deafferentation. Minisi, A.J. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Calcitonin gene-related peptide: functional role in cerebrovascular regulation. McCulloch, J., Uddman, R., Kingman, T.A., Edvinsson, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  42. The influence of combined intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation and hyperosomotic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow in ischemic myocardium in the dog. Watson, J.T., Fixler, D.E., Platt, M.R., Nall, B.B., Jett, G.K., Willerson, J.T. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  43. Reflex parasympathetic coronary vasodilation elicited from cardiac receptors in the dog. Feigl, E.O. Circ. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  44. Functional activation of cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest in rat. Schmitz, B., Böttiger, B.W., Hossmann, K.A. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
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