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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Culture of normal and leukemic bone marrow in interleukin-2: analysis of cell activation, cell proliferation, and cytokine production.

Transplantation of bone marrow autografts activated by culture in interleukin-2 (IL-2) followed by administration of IL-2 represents a novel approach in an attempt to combine ex vivo purging and post-transplant in vivo immunotherapy, and initial clinical results have suggested its feasibility. To further characterize the mechanism of the in vitro anti-leukemia effect, fresh bone marrow from normal donors and from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in remission was cultured for 6 days in the absence or presence of IL-2 (1000 IU/ml). Proliferation of CD3, CD8, CD14, and CD56 cells was determined by direct immunofluorescence using flow cytometry. Predominantly T-lymphocytes (CD3+) and to a lesser extent CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells proliferate in 6-day marrow cultures in IL-2. Fresh bone marrow cells have no measurable NK activity when tested against K562 and Daudi target cell lines in a 4 h chromium-51 release assay, and it requires at least 6 days of culture in IL-2 to develop optimal cytotoxic activity. Cytokines released in the supernatants of these cultures were measured by immuno- and bioassays. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and IL-6 were found to be produced in significant amounts by marrow mononuclear cells during culture in IL-2. Even without IL-2 present, concentrations of these cytokines were increased in 6-day marrow cultures. In contrast, IL-3, IL-7, granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF and GM-CSF) were below the level of detection of the immunoassay, a result that could be confirmed for GM-CSF and IL-3 by bioassay. The data suggest that culture of marrow from normal donors as well as from patients with AML obtained in remission can generate anti-leukemia effector mechanisms which are non-crossreactive with chemo- and radiotherapy and may contribute to effective ex vivo purging of residual leukemic cells. The transplantation of such IL-2 'primed' marrow may also contribute to an in vivo graft-versus-leukemia effect.[1]


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