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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase by activation of muscarinic m3 receptors is dependent on integrin engagement by the extracellular matrix.

The G protein-coupled m1 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors increase tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including the focal adhesion-associated proteins paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but the mechanism is not understood. Activation of integrins during adhesion of cells to extracellular matrix, or stimulation of quiescent cell monolayers with G protein-coupled receptor ligands including bradykinin, bombesin, endothelin, vasopressin, and lysophosphatidic acid, also induces tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK and formation of focal adhesions. These effects are generally independent of protein kinase C but are inhibited by agents that prevent cytoskeletal assembly or block activation of the small molecular weight G protein Rho. This report demonstrates that tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK elicited by stimulation of muscarinic m3 receptors with the acetylcholine analog carbachol is inhibited by soluble peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartate motif (the recognition site for integrins found in adhesion proteins such as fibronectin) but is unaffected by peptides containing the inactive sequence arginine-glycine-glutamate. Tyrosine phosphorylation elicited by carbachol, but not by cell adhesion to fibronectin, is reduced by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. The response to carbachol is dependent on the presence of fibronectin. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies show that carbachol treatment induces formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. These results suggest that muscarinic receptor stimulation activates integrins via a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. The activated integrins transmit a signal into the cell's interior leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK. This represents a novel mechanism for regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation by muscarinic receptors.[1]


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