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Chemical Compound Review

Yggfmrf     (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2- [[(2S)-2-[2-[2...

Synonyms: Met-enk-AP, AC1L3XAM, AR-1J3475, 6-Arg-7-phe-met-enkephalin, Tyr-gly-gly-phe-met-arg-phe, ...
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High impact information on Met-enk-AP


Biological context of Met-enk-AP


Anatomical context of Met-enk-AP

  • Thus, purification by ion exchange chromatography prior to RIA appeared to be the most suitable by providing measurable levels of both MEAP and DYNB in all tissues analyzed (highest in bone marrow, lowest in cortical bone) [7].
  • Physiological studies on the isolated blowfly salivary gland show that synthetic YGGFMRF is a potent secretagogue with a maximal rate of fluid secretion induced at a concentration of between 10(-13) and 10(-12) M [8].
  • The endogenous opioid heptapeptide (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe; MERF) has been shown to interact with multiple opioid as well as non-opioid sites in mammalian brain membranes [9].
  • The occurrence of methionine-enkephalin-Arg(6)-Phe(7) (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) representing two main precursors of opioids was analyzed in specimens from rat cortical bone, periosteum, bone marrow and joint tissue by radioimmunoassay (RIA) [7].
  • The presence of met5-enkephalin-arg6-phe7 into circulation indicates that it may have some physiological role, however it is unknown whether circulating YGGFMRF originates from adrenal medulla, intermediate lobe of pituitary or some other site [10].

Associations of Met-enk-AP with other chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Met-enk-AP

  • Action of peptidase inhibitors on methionine5-enkephalin-arginine6-phenylalanine7 (YGGFMRF) and methionine5-enkephalin (YGGFM) metabolism and on electroacupuncture antinociception [4].
  • Neuropeptides identified with a radioimmunoassay specific for the C-terminus of Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 (YGGFMRF) have been extracted from nervous tissues of the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria and also from whole flies [8].
  • Regional microdissection revealed the dorsal grey matter to be highest in YGGFMRF content followed by ventral gray, ventral white and dorsal white matter; a similar pattern was observed for Met5-enkephalin [13].
  • The distribution of an opioid peptide related to YGGFMRF was determined in the CNS and other organs of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, by RIA and immunocytochemistry [14].
  • The metabolic clearance rate of YGGFMRF is slower than that of met5-enkephalin [10].


  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors potentiate the analgesic activity of [Met]-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 by inhibiting its degradation in mouse brain. Norman, J.A., Autry, W.L., Barbaz, B.S. Mol. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Enkephalins in the rat pituitary gland: immunohistochemical and biochemical observations. Panula, P., Lindberg, I. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 degradation by inhibitors of dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase. Mellstrom, B., Iadarola, M.J., Yang, H.Y., Costa, E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Action of peptidase inhibitors on methionine5-enkephalin-arginine6-phenylalanine7 (YGGFMRF) and methionine5-enkephalin (YGGFM) metabolism and on electroacupuncture antinociception. Chou, J., Tang, J., Del Rio, J., Yang, H.Y., Costa, E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Blood pressure elevation in rats by peripheral administration of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe and the invertebrate neuropeptide, Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2. Mues, G., Fuchs, I., Wei, E.T., Weber, E., Evans, C.J., Barchas, J.D., Chang, J.K. Life Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation and characterization of opioid peptides in the avian brain. Kotegawa, T., Takahashi, T., Tsutsui, K., Ikeda, T., Minakata, H., Nomoto, K. J. Exp. Zool. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Purification and quantification of opioid peptides in bone and joint tissues--a methodological study in the rat. Bergström, J., Ahmed, M., Kreicbergs, A., Nylander, I. J. Orthop. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Chromatographic characterisation and biological activity of neuropeptides immunoreactive to antisera against Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 (YGGFMRF) extracted from the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera). Duve, H., Sewell, J.C., Scott, A.G., Thorpe, A. Regul. Pept. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Synthesis and binding characteristics of a novel enkephalin analogue, [3H]Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Nle-Arg-Phe. Tóth, F., Farkas, J., Tóth, G., Wollemann, M., Borsodi, A., Benyhe, S. Peptides (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Met5-enkephalin-arg6-phe7 content of human and rabbit plasma. Chou, J., Tang, J., Costa, E. Life Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Substance P stimulates the release of Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and Met5-enkephalin from rat spinal cord. Tang, J., Chou, J., Yang, H.Y., Costa, E. Neuropharmacology (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence for the expression of peptides derived from three opioid precursors in NG 108CC15 hybrid cells. Dandekar, T., Schulz, R. Neuropeptides (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Distribution of Met5-enkephalin-Arg6, Phe7 in rat spinal cord. Majane, E.A., Iadarola, M.J., Yang, H.Y. Brain Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Met-enkephalin Arg-Phe-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Smith, F.G., Parish, D.C., Benjamin, P.R. Cell Tissue Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
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