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Chemical Compound Review

Capoten     (2S)-1-[(2R)-2-methyl-3- sulfanyl...

Synonyms: Lopirin, captopril, SQ-14225, SQ-14534, SQ-14,225, ...
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Disease relevance of Capoten


Psychiatry related information on Capoten


High impact information on Capoten


Chemical compound and disease context of Capoten

  • We performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing captopril with placebo in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in whom urinary protein excretion was > or = 500 mg per day and the serum creatinine concentration was < or = 2.5 mg per deciliter (221 mumol per liter) [14].
  • Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used in the management of hypertension and ventricular failure; to our knowledge, this is the first case of an acute captopril overdose reported in the English-language literature [16].
  • Comparison of antihypertensive effects of captopril and propranolol in essential hypertension [17].
  • In a six month placebo-controlled cross-over trial twenty patients with hypertension and peripheral arterial disease were randomised to captopril 25 mg twice daily, atenolol 100 mg once daily, labetalol 200 mg twice daily, or pindolol 10 mg twice daily for one month [18].
  • RESULTS: Captopril treatment significantly reduced hepatic hydroxyproline levels, mean fibrosis score, steady state messenger RNA levels of TGF-beta1 and procollagen alpha1(I), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 activity [19].

Biological context of Capoten


Anatomical context of Capoten

  • In a subset of 36 patients who were at high risk for ventricular enlargement because they had persistent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, captopril prevented further ventricular dilatation (P less than 0.05) [2].
  • During one year of follow-up, the end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle increased by a mean [+/- SEM] of 21 +/- 8 ml (P less than 0.02) in the placebo group, but by only 10 +/- 6 ml (P not significant) in the captopril group [2].
  • Of these patients, those receiving captopril had a collagen type I:III ratio of 1.49 +/- 0.38, which did not differ significantly from the ratio of individuals with normal myocardium [24].
  • Captopril acted directly and specifically on capillary endothelial cells, inhibiting their chemotaxis with a biphasic dose-response curve showing an initial decrease at clinically achievable doses under 10 microM and a further slow decline in the millimolar range [25].
  • To clarify the relationship between the renin-angiotensin axis and sympathetic nervous system in the accelerated hypertensives, we measured the MSNA after 7 d of oral administration of captopril (75 mg/d) for antihypertensive treatment in the benign hypertensives and accelerated hypertensives [26].

Associations of Capoten with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Capoten


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Capoten


  1. Beta blockade during captopril treatment for hypertension. Staessen, J., Fagard, R., Lijnen, P., Verschueren, L.J., Amery, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of captopril on progressive ventricular dilatation after anterior myocardial infarction. Pfeffer, M.A., Lamas, G.A., Vaughan, D.E., Parisi, A.F., Braunwald, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyperkinetic circulation associated with captopril therapy for congestive heart failure. Fouad, F.M., Salcedo, E.E., Saragoca, M., Bravo, E.L., Tarazi, R.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Captopril-induced functional renal insufficiency in patients with bilateral renal-artery stenoses or renal-artery stenosis in a solitary kidney. Hricik, D.E., Browning, P.J., Kopelman, R., Goorno, W.E., Madias, N.E., Dzau, V.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. The SAVE Investigators. Pfeffer, M.A., Braunwald, E., Moyé, L.A., Basta, L., Brown, E.J., Cuddy, T.E., Davis, B.R., Geltman, E.M., Goldman, S., Flaker, G.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Randomised trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly Study, ELITE). Pitt, B., Segal, R., Martinez, F.A., Meurers, G., Cowley, A.J., Thomas, I., Deedwania, P.C., Ney, D.E., Snavely, D.B., Chang, P.I. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Positive effects of captopril in the behavioral despair swim test. Giardina, W.J., Ebert, D.M. Biol. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive diabetic patients on first-line therapy with an ACE inhibitor compared with a diuretic/beta-blocker-based treatment regimen: a subanalysis of the Captopril Prevention Project. Niskanen, L., Hedner, T., Hansson, L., Lanke, J., Niklason, A. Diabetes Care (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Captopril as an antidepressant? Effects on the learned helplessness paradigm in rats. Martin, P., Massol, J., Puech, A.J. Biol. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased or decreased thirst caused by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the rat. Evered, M.D., Robinson, M.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Images in clinical medicine. Captopril-augmented renal scan. Goto, A., Kawauchi, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of bradykinin-receptor blockade on the response to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Gainer, J.V., Morrow, J.D., Loveland, A., King, D.J., Brown, N.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Ventricular dysfunction and the risk of stroke after myocardial infarction. Loh, E., Sutton, M.S., Wun, C.C., Rouleau, J.L., Flaker, G.C., Gottlieb, S.S., Lamas, G.A., Moyé, L.A., Goldhaber, S.Z., Pfeffer, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. The Collaborative Study Group. Lewis, E.J., Hunsicker, L.G., Bain, R.P., Rohde, R.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. A comparison of management patterns after acute myocardial infarction in Canada and the United States. The SAVE investigators. Rouleau, J.L., Moyé, L.A., Pfeffer, M.A., Arnold, J.M., Bernstein, V., Cuddy, T.E., Dagenais, G.R., Geltman, E.M., Goldman, S., Gordon, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Captopril overdose resulting in hypotension. Augenstein, W.L., Kulig, K.W., Rumack, B.H. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of antihypertensive effects of captopril and propranolol in essential hypertension. Huang, C.M., del Greco, F., Quintanilla, A., Molteni, A. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Placebo-controlled comparison of captopril, atenolol, labetalol, and pindolol in hypertension complicated by intermittent claudication. Roberts, D.H., Tsao, Y., McLoughlin, G.A., Breckenridge, A. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition attenuates the progression of rat hepatic fibrosis. Jonsson, J.R., Clouston, A.D., Ando, Y., Kelemen, L.I., Horn, M.J., Adamson, M.D., Purdie, D.M., Powell, E.E. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Captopril and renal autoregulation. Blythe, W.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension. Pollare, T., Lithell, H., Berne, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Pulmonary function and airway responsiveness during long-term therapy with captopril. Boulet, L.P., Milot, J., Lampron, N., Lacourcière, Y. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on altered renal hemodynamics induced by low protein diet in the rat. Fernández-Repollet, E., Tapia, E., Martínez-Maldonado, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Alteration of collagen phenotypes in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Mukherjee, D., Sen, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Captopril inhibits angiogenesis and slows the growth of experimental tumors in rats. Volpert, O.V., Ward, W.F., Lingen, M.W., Chesler, L., Solt, D.B., Johnson, M.D., Molteni, A., Polverini, P.J., Bouck, N.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Elevated sympathetic nerve activity in patients with accelerated essential hypertension. Matsukawa, T., Mano, T., Gotoh, E., Ishii, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparison of captopril and enalapril in patients with severe chronic heart failure. Packer, M., Lee, W.H., Yushak, M., Medina, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of the endogenous kallikrein-kinin system in modulating vasopressin-stimulated water flow and urea permeability in the toad urinary bladder. Carvounis, C.P., Carvounis, G., Arbeit, L.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. A novel vascular smooth muscle chymase is upregulated in hypertensive rats. Guo, C., Ju, H., Leung, D., Massaeli, H., Shi, M., Rabinovitch, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of losartan and captopril on mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients after acute myocardial infarction: the OPTIMAAL randomised trial. Optimal Trial in Myocardial Infarction with Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan. Dickstein, K., Kjekshus, J. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Mechanism of beta-adrenergic receptor upregulation induced by ACE inhibition in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes: roles of bradykinin and protein kinase C. Yonemochi, H., Yasunaga, S., Teshima, Y., Iwao, T., Akiyoshi, K., Nakagawa, M., Saikawa, T., Ito, M. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Polymeric IgA1 from patients with IgA nephropathy upregulates transforming growth factor-beta synthesis and signal transduction in human mesangial cells via the renin-angiotensin system. Lai, K.N., Tang, S.C., Guh, J.Y., Chuang, T.D., Lam, M.F., Chan, L.Y., Tsang, A.W., Leung, J.C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Effects of afterload-reducing drugs on pathogenesis of antioxidant changes and congestive heart failure in rats. Khaper, N., Singal, P.K. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. An ACE inhibitor reduces Th2 cytokines and TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 isoforms in murine lupus nephritis. De Albuquerque, D.A., Saxena, V., Adams, D.E., Boivin, G.P., Brunner, H.I., Witte, D.P., Singh, R.R. Kidney Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Dietary potassium supplementation and sodium restriction stimulate aldosterone synthase but not 11 beta-hydroxylase P-450 messenger ribonucleic acid accumulation in rat adrenals and require angiotensin II production. Tremblay, A., Parker, K.L., Lehoux, J.G. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Sustained effectiveness of converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Dzau, V.J., Colucci, W.S., Williams, G.H., Curfman, G., Meggs, L., Hollenberg, N.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  37. Medical intelligence drug therapy: captopril. Vidt, D.G., Bravo, E.L., Fouad, F.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  38. Newer tests for the diagnosis of renovascular disease. Davidson, R.A., Wilcox, C.S. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Improved diagnosis of unilateral renal artery lesions after captopril administration. Thibonnier, M., Joseph, A., Sassano, P., Guyenne, T.T., Corvol, P., Raynaud, A., Seurot, M., Gaux, J.C. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
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