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MeSH Review

Adrenal Medulla

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Disease relevance of Adrenal Medulla


Psychiatry related information on Adrenal Medulla


High impact information on Adrenal Medulla

  • Heterozygous animals do not exhibit the classical symptoms of the human disease, but are highly predisposed to the formation of various tumour types, notably phaeochomocytoma, a tumour of the neural crest-derived adrenal medulla, and myeloid leukaemia, both of which occur with increased frequency in human NF1 patients [8].
  • Adrenaline and noradrenaline, the main effectors of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla, respectively, are thought to control adiposity and energy balance through several mechanisms [9].
  • Adrenal medulla, brain, pituitary and parathyroid are all sites of synthesis of chromogranin A. The primary structure of chromogranin A, and the presence of chromogranin mRNA in the parathyroid, indicate that chromogranin A and SP-I are identical [10].
  • In the adrenal medulla, these receptors are coupled to adenylate cyclase and can stimulate the secretion of catecholamines and Met-enkephalin [11].
  • Such an action of CRF is supported by our demonstration of specific CRF receptors in the monkey adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Adrenal Medulla


Biological context of Adrenal Medulla


Anatomical context of Adrenal Medulla


Associations of Adrenal Medulla with chemical compounds


Gene context of Adrenal Medulla


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Adrenal Medulla


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  2. Tetrahydrobiopterin increases in adrenal medulla and cortex: a factor in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase. Abou-Donia, M.M., Viveros, O.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Partial characterization of the mRNA that codes for enkephalins in bovine adrenal medulla and human pheochromocytoma. Comb, M., Herbert, E., Crea, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Beta 2-microglobulin expression in human embryonal neuroblastoma reflects its developmental regulation. Cooper, M.J., Hutchins, G.M., Mennie, R.J., Israel, M.A. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Plasma catecholamines in patients with presinusoidal portal hypertension: comparison with cirrhotic patients and nonportal hypertensive subjects. Gaudin, C., Braillon, A., Poo, J.L., Kleber, G., Moreau, R., Lebrec, D. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Electroconvulsive shock increases tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the brain and adrenal gland of the rat. Masserano, J.M., Takimoto, G.S., Weiner, N. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Dibutyryl cAMP stimulates analgesia in rats bearing a ventricular adrenal medulla transplant. Pacheco-Cano, M.T., García-Hernández, F., Hiriart, M., Komisaruk, B.R., Drucker-Colín, R. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Tumour predisposition in mice heterozygous for a targeted mutation in Nf1. Jacks, T., Shih, T.S., Schmitt, E.M., Bronson, R.T., Bernards, A., Weinberg, R.A. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Thermoregulatory and metabolic phenotypes of mice lacking noradrenaline and adrenaline. Thomas, S.A., Palmiter, R.D. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
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  11. Functional corticotropin releasing factor receptors in the primate peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Udelsman, R., Harwood, J.P., Millan, M.A., Chrousos, G.P., Goldstein, D.S., Zimlichman, R., Catt, K.J., Aguilera, G. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Is physiologic sympathoadrenal catecholamine release exocytotic in humans? Takiyyuddin, M.A., Cervenka, J.H., Sullivan, P.A., Pandian, M.R., Parmer, R.J., Barbosa, J.A., O'Connor, D.T. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Covalent cross-linking of prostaglandin E receptor from bovine adrenal medulla with a pertussis toxin-insensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Negishi, M., Ito, S., Tanaka, T., Yokohama, H., Hayashi, H., Katada, T., Ui, M., Hayaishi, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Prostaglandin E receptors in bovine adrenal medulla are coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gi and to phosphoinositide metabolism in a pertussis toxin-insensitive manner. Negishi, M., Ito, S., Hayaishi, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of androgen on tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in adrenal medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Kumai, T., Tanaka, M., Watanabe, M., Nakura, H., Kobayashi, S. Hypertension (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Dopamine D2 receptor gene expression and binding sites in adrenal medulla and pheochromocytoma. Pupilli, C., Lanzillotti, R., Fiorelli, G., Selli, C., Gomez, R.A., Carey, R.M., Serio, M., Mannelli, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Clathrin light chains and secretory vesicle binding proteins are distinct. Creutz, C.E., Harrison, J.R. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Dopamine: an important neurohormone of the sympathoadrenal system. Significance of increased peripheral dopamine release for the human stress response and hypertension. Snider, S.R., Kuchel, O. Endocr. Rev. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Enhanced template activity in chromatin from adrenal medulla after phosphorylation of chromosomal proteins. Chuang, D.M., Hollenbeck, R., Costa, E. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Adrenal opioid proteins of 8600 and 12,600 daltons: intermediates in proenkephalin processing. Jones, B.N., Shively, J.E., Kilpatrick, D.L., Stern, A.S., Lewis, R.V., Kojima, K., Udenfriend, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression cloning of a cDNA encoding the bovine histamine H1 receptor. Yamashita, M., Fukui, H., Sugama, K., Horio, Y., Ito, S., Mizuguchi, H., Wada, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Nicotinic receptor stimulation activates enkephalin release and biosynthesis in adrenal chromaffin cells. Eiden, L.E., Giraud, P., Dave, J.R., Hotchkiss, A.J., Affolter, H.U. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides in the human adrenal medulla. Evans, C.J., Erdelyi, E., Weber, E., Barchas, J.D. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin in human sympathoadrenal system and pheochromocytoma. Yoshimasa, T., Nakao, K., Ohtsuki, H., Li, S., Imura, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Lack of expression of aminoacylase-1 in small cell lung cancer. Evidence for inactivation of genes encoded by chromosome 3p. Miller, Y.E., Minna, J.D., Gazdar, A.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Local secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone by enterochromaffin cells in human colon. Kawahito, Y., Sano, H., Kawata, M., Yuri, K., Mukai, S., Yamamura, Y., Kato, H., Chrousos, G.P., Wilder, R.L., Kondo, M. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Presence in brain of synenkephalin, a proenkephalin-immunoreactive protein which does not contain enkephalin. Liston, D.R., Vanderhaeghen, J.J., Rossier, J. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. A dynorphinergic pathway of Leu-enkephalin production in rat substantia nigra. Zamir, N., Palkovits, M., Weber, E., Mezey, E., Brownstein, M.J. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Phorbol ester facilitates 45Ca accumulation and catecholamine secretion by nicotine and excess K+ but not by muscarine in rat adrenal medulla. Wakade, A.R., Malhotra, R.K., Wakade, T.D. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Novel C-terminally amidated opioid peptide in human phaeochromocytoma tumour. Matsuo, H., Miyata, A., Mizuno, K. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Impulse activity differentially regulates [Leu]enkephalin and catecholamine characters in the adrenal medulla. LaGamma, E.F., Adler, J.E., Black, I.B. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Genetic alteration of catecholamine specificity in transgenic mice. Kobayashi, K., Sasaoka, T., Morita, S., Nagatsu, I., Iguchi, A., Kurosawa, Y., Fujita, K., Nomura, T., Kimura, M., Katsuki, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Distinct pharmacological properties and distribution in neurons and endocrine cells of two isoforms of the human vesicular monoamine transporter. Erickson, J.D., Schafer, M.K., Bonner, T.I., Eiden, L.E., Weihe, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. TrkB and neurotrophin-4 are important for development and maintenance of sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the adrenal medulla. Schober, A., Wolf, N., Huber, K., Hertel, R., Krieglstein, K., Minichiello, L., Kahane, N., Widenfalk, J., Kalcheim, C., Olson, L., Klein, R., Lewin, G.R., Unsicker, K. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in adrenal medulla and loss of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in TrkA-deficient, but not TrkB-deficient, mice. Schober, A., Minichiello, L., Keller, M., Huber, K., Layer, P.G., Roig-López, J.L., García-Arrarás, J.E., Klein, R., Unsicker, K. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Specific neural and adrenal medullary antigens detected by antisera to clonal PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Lee, V., Shelanski, M.L., Greene, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  37. Fos-related antigen 2: potential mediator of the transcriptional activation in rat adrenal medulla evoked by repeated immobilization stress. Nankova, B.B., Rivkin, M., Kelz, M., Nestler, E.J., Sabban, E.L. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Direct photoaffinity labeling of proteins with adenosine 3'-[32P]phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate. Atractyloside inhibits labeling of a Mr = 34,000 protein in an adrenal medullary Golgi fraction. Lee, R.W., Suchanek, C., Huttner, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Purified cytochrome b561 catalyzes transmembrane electron transfer for dopamine beta-hydroxylase and peptidyl glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase activities in reconstituted systems. Kent, U.M., Fleming, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  40. Differential expression of bovine adseverin in adrenal gland revealed by in situ hybridization. Cloning of a cDNA for adseverin. Nakamura, S., Sakurai, T., Nonomura, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
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