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Chemical Compound Review

AG-F-15588     (3S,5R,6S,8R,9R,10S,12R,13S,14 S,17S)-17...

Synonyms: KST-1A4447, KST-1A4448, AR-1A5296, AR-1A5297, AC1L4Q3K, ...
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Disease relevance of Protopanaxatriol


High impact information on Protopanaxatriol


Biological context of Protopanaxatriol

  • It was shown that two hydrolysis products of the protopanaxatriol ginsenosides, namely G-Rh1 and G-F1 may reach the systemic circulation [10].
  • It can be concluded from these studies that the presence of sugars in PD and PT aglycone structures reduces the potency to induce apoptosis, and alternately alter membrane integrity [11].
  • In addition, the EGF-induced increase of c-fos and c-jun gene expression was completely blocked by total ginsenosides and partially by PT and PD saponins [12].
  • This study investigated the effect of total ginsenosides, protopanaxatriol (PT) saponin, and protopanaxadiol (PD) saponin fraction on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced renal cell proliferation and, furthermore, c-fos and c-jun gene expression [12].

Anatomical context of Protopanaxatriol


Associations of Protopanaxatriol with other chemical compounds

  • After 48 and 72 h, Rh2, Rh1, and dexamethasone similarly increased apoptosis, but these effects were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those observed for both PD and PT treatments [11].
  • The contents of five ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc and Rd) were measured in American ginseng roots collected from 10 populations grown in Maryland. Ginsenoside contents and compositions varied significantly among populations and protopanaxatriol (Rg1 and Re) ginsenosides were inversely correlated within root samples and among populations [15].

Gene context of Protopanaxatriol

  • During investigations on the hydrolysis of a protopanaxatriol-type saponin mixture by various glycoside hydrolases, it was found that two minor saponins, ginsenosides Rg 2 and Rh 1, were formed in high yields by crude beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae and crude lactase from Penicillium sp., respectively [16].
  • Most protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides and some protopanaxatriol-type saponins also showed significant effects on PTK activation [17].
  • These experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, major components of the protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol fractions of ginseng saponin, on morphine-induced hyperactivity and conditioned place-preference [18].
  • GTS and PT caused a dose-dependent inhibition of BaCl2-induced contraction of GPI [14].
  • No difference in the suppressive action between protopanaxadiol (Rb1, Rc, Rd) and protopanaxatriol (Rg1, Rg2, Re, Rh1) saponins was shown; the slope of fEPSPs was reduced by 38% and 40% on average, respectively [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Protopanaxatriol

  • HPLC analysis of saponins extracted from the adventitious roots indicated that several protopanaxatriol saponins were present but ginsenoside Rd was missing, compared with the saponins extracted from the raw herbs [20].


  1. In vitro study of the relationship between the structure of ginsenoside and its antioxidative or prooxidative activity in free radical induced hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Liu, Z.Q., Luo, X.Y., Liu, G.Z., Chen, Y.P., Wang, Z.C., Sun, Y.X. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevention of growth and metastasis of murine melanoma through enhanced natural-killer cytotoxicity by fatty acid-conjugate of protopanaxatriol. Hasegawa, H., Suzuki, R., Nagaoka, T., Tezuka, Y., Kadota, S., Saiki, I. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of panaxytriol isolated from ginseng. Bae, E.A., Han, M.J., Baek, N.I., Kim, D.H. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of ginseng saponins on a rat visceral hypersensitivity model. Kim, J.H., Lee, J.H., Jeong, S.M., Lee, B.H., Yoon, I.S., Lee, J.H., Choi, S.H., Nah, S.Y. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. In vitro inhibition of adrenal catecholamine secretion by steroidal metabolites of ginseng saponins. Tachikawa, E., Kudo, K., Hasegawa, H., Kashimoto, T., Sasaki, K., Miyazaki, M., Taira, H., Lindstrom, J.M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Regioselective enzymatic glycosylation of natural polyhydroxylated compounds: galactosylation and glucosylation of protopanaxatriol ginsenosides. Danieli, B., Falcone, L., Monti, D., Riva, S., Gebhardt, S., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M. J. Org. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Adjuvant effects of protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol saponins from ginseng roots on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Sun, J., Hu, S., Song, X. Vaccine (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides differentially modulate type 1 and type 2 cytokines production from murine splenocytes. Yu, J.L., Dou, D.Q., Chen, X.H., Yang, H.Z., Guo, N., Cheng, G.F. Planta Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by protopanaxatriol ginsenosides from Korean red ginseng. Choi, C.H., Kang, G., Min, Y.D. Planta Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Degradation of ginsenosides in humans after oral administration. Tawab, M.A., Bahr, U., Karas, M., Wurglics, M., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Structure-function relationship exists for ginsenosides in reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in the human leukemia (THP-1) cell line. Popovich, D.G., Kitts, D.D. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Ginsenosides inhibit EGF-induced proliferation of renal proximal tubule cells via decrease of c-fos and c-jun gene expression in vitro. Han, H.J., Yoon, B.C., Lee, S.H., Park, S.H., Park, J.Y., Oh, Y.J., Lee, Y.J. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Ginsenoside 20S-protopanaxatriol (PPT) activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Han, K.L., Jung, M.H., Sohn, J.H., Hwang, J.K. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A non-opioid mechanism in the inhibitory effect of ginseng saponins on electrically evoked contractions of guinea-pig ileum and mouse vas deferens. Watanabe, J., Oh, K.W., Kim, H.S., Takahashi, M., Kaneto, H. J. Pharmacobio-dyn. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Ginsenoside content and variation among and within American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) populations. Schlag, E.M., McIntosh, M.S. Phytochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Enzymatic preparation of ginsenosides Rg2, Rh1, and F1 from protopanaxatriol-type ginseng saponin mixture. Ko, S.R., Choi, K.J., Uchida, K., Suzuki, Y. Planta Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. The inhibitory effects of ginsenosides on protein tyrosine kinase activated by hypoxia/reoxygenation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Dou, D.Q., Zhang, Y.W., Zhang, L., Chen, Y.J., Yao, X.S. Planta Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of the ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 on morphine-induced hyperactivity and reinforcement in mice. Kim, H.S., Hong, Y.T., Jang, C.G. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Reduction of electrically evoked neural activity by ginseng saponin in rat hippocampal slices. Lee, S.H., Yang, S.C., Park, J.K., Jung, M.W., Lee, C.J. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction and characterization of adventitious roots directly from the explants of Panax notoginseng. Gao, X., Zhu, C., Jia, W., Gao, W., Qiu, M., Zhang, Y., Xiao, P. Biotechnol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
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