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Chemical Compound Review

GINSENOSIDE     (3S,5R,8R,9R,10S,14R,17S)-17- (2-hydroxy-6...

Synonyms: LS-71251, AC1MJ5EP, 74749-74-9
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Disease relevance of GINSENOSIDE

  • On the other hand, ginsenoside Rh1 does not inhibit the growth of melanoma cells even at concentrations over 100 microM but stimulates the expression of the melanotic phenotype [1].
  • Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits the growth of B16 melanoma cells, causes morphological alterations, and stimulates melanogenesis at high cellular density [1].
  • This antidiabetic effect of ginsenoside Re was not associated with body weight changes, suggesting that other constituents in the extract have distinct pharmacological mechanisms on energy metabolism [2].
  • Thus, ginsenoside Re acts as a specific agonist for the nongenomic pathway of sex steroid receptors, and NO released from activated eNOS underlies cardiac K(+) channel activation and protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury [3].
  • We have shown that ginsenoside Rf (Rf) regulates voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels through pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins in rat sensory neurons [4].

Psychiatry related information on GINSENOSIDE


High impact information on GINSENOSIDE


Chemical compound and disease context of GINSENOSIDE


Biological context of GINSENOSIDE


Anatomical context of GINSENOSIDE


Associations of GINSENOSIDE with other chemical compounds


Gene context of GINSENOSIDE


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GINSENOSIDE

  • Prevention of ischemic neuronal death by intravenous infusion of a ginseng saponin, ginsenoside Rb(1), that upregulates Bcl-x(L) expression [20].
  • It is important to stress that ginsenoside Rf and 24(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11, which possess the same molecular weight and were found to have similar retention times under most LC conditions, can be unambiguously distinguished in the present HPLC/MS method [29].
  • 2 We used perforated configuration of patch-clamp technique to define the mechanism of enhancement of IKs and suppression of I(Ca,L) by ginsenoside Re in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes [30].
  • Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of rat samples for in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies of ginsenoside Rh2 [31].
  • It is noteworthy that this ginsenoside production exceeded by almost 3-fold that obtained during the shake flask culture of our hairy root line, although it often happens that the scale-up from shake flask to a bioreactor culture results in reduced productivities [32].


  1. Control of phenotypic expression of cultured B16 melanoma cells by plant glycosides. Odashima, S., Ohta, T., Kohno, H., Matsuda, T., Kitagawa, I., Abe, H., Arichi, S. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component. Attele, A.S., Zhou, Y.P., Xie, J.T., Wu, J.A., Zhang, L., Dey, L., Pugh, W., Rue, P.A., Polonsky, K.S., Yuan, C.S. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Ginsenoside Re, a Main Phytosterol of Panax ginseng, Activates Cardiac Potassium Channels via a Nongenomic Pathway of Sex Hormones. Furukawa, T., Bai, C.X., Kaihara, A., Ozaki, E., Kawano, T., Nakaya, Y., Awais, M., Sato, M., Umezawa, Y., Kurokawa, J. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional expression of a novel ginsenoside Rf binding protein from rat brain mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Choi, S., Jung, S.Y., Ko, Y.S., Koh, S.R., Rhim, H., Nah, S.Y. Mol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Abeta(25-35)-induced memory impairment, axonal atrophy, and synaptic loss are ameliorated by M1, A metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type saponins. Tohda, C., Matsumoto, N., Zou, K., Meselhy, M.R., Komatsu, K. Neuropsychopharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Actions of ginsenoside Rb1 on choline uptake in central cholinergic nerve endings. Benishin, C.G. Neurochem. Int. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Ginseng root prevents learning disability and neuronal loss in gerbils with 5-minute forebrain ischemia. Wen, T.C., Yoshimura, H., Matsuda, S., Lim, J.H., Sakanaka, M. Acta Neuropathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. An in-vitro study of ginsenoside Rb1-induced teratogenicity using a whole rat embryo culture model. Chan, L.Y., Chiu, P.Y., Lau, T.K. Hum. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents histaminergic modulation of rat adaptive behavior from elevation of ambient temperature. Yoshimatsu, H., Sakata, T., Machidori, H., Fujimoto, K., Yamatodani, A., Wada, H. Physiol. Behav. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Suppression of the formation of sister chromatid exchanges by low concentrations of ginsenoside Rh2 in human blood lymphocytes. Zhu, J.H., Takeshita, T., Kitagawa, I., Morimoto, K. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Prevention of ginsenoside-induced desensitization of Ca2+-activated Cl- current by microinjection of inositol hexakisphosphate in Xenopus laevis oocytes: involvement of GRK2 and beta-arrestin I. Lee, J.H., Jeong, S.M., Lee, B.H., Noh, H.S., Kim, B.K., Kim, J.I., Rhim, H., Kim, H.C., Kim, K.M., Nah, S.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Caspase-3-mediated cleavage of Cdc6 induces nuclear localization of p49-truncated Cdc6 and apoptosis. Yim, H., Jin, Y.H., Park, B.D., Choi, H.J., Lee, S.K. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. G alpha(q/11) coupled to mammalian phospholipase C beta 3-like enzyme mediates the ginsenoside effect on Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in the Xenopus oocyte. Choi, S., Kim, H.J., Ko, Y.S., Jeong, S.W., Kim, Y.I., Simonds, W.F., Oh, J.W., Nah, S.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. The effects of ginsenoside Re and its metabolite, ginsenoside Rh1, on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate- and oxazolone-induced mouse dermatitis models. Shin, Y.W., Bae, E.A., Kim, S.S., Lee, Y.C., Lee, B.Y., Kim, D.H. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of nine active ingredients in Chinese herbal medicine sho-saiko-to on 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide mutagenicity. Ohtsuka, M., Fukuda, K., Yano, H., Kojiro, M. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Cisplatin's tumoricidal effect on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells was not attenuated by American ginseng. Aung, H.H., Mehendale, S.R., Wang, C.Z., Xie, J.T., McEntee, E., Yuan, C.S. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of ginsenoside ro1. Matsuda, H., Samukawa, K., Kubo, M. Planta Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by saikosaponin a, saikosaponin d and saikogenin d. Kumazawa, Y., Takimoto, H., Nishimura, C., Kawakita, T., Nomoto, K. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Transcriptional activation of the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene through the AP2 site by ginsenoside Rb2 extracted from a medicinal plant, Panax ginseng. Kim, Y.H., Park, K.H., Rho, H.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Prevention of ischemic neuronal death by intravenous infusion of a ginseng saponin, ginsenoside Rb(1), that upregulates Bcl-x(L) expression. Zhang, B., Hata, R., Zhu, P., Sato, K., Wen, T.C., Yang, L., Fujita, H., Mitsuda, N., Tanaka, J., Samukawa, K., Maeda, N., Sakanaka, M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Ginsenoside F1 protects human HaCaT keratinocytes from ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis by maintaining constant levels of Bcl-2. Lee, E.H., Cho, S.Y., Kim, S.J., Shin, E.S., Chang, H.K., Kim, D.H., Yeom, M.H., Woe, K.S., Lee, J., Sim, Y.C., Lee, T.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Ginsenoside-induced relaxation of human bronchial smooth muscle via release of nitric oxide. Tamaoki, J., Nakata, J., Kawatani, K., Tagaya, E., Nagai, A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Ginsenoside Rb1 blocks homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries. Zhou, W., Chai, H., Lin, P.H., Lumsden, A.B., Yao, Q., Chen, C. J. Vasc. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside Rg1 derived from Panax notoginseng. Chan, R.Y., Chen, W.F., Dong, A., Guo, D., Wong, M.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of ginseng saponins isolated from Red Ginseng roots on burn wound healing in mice. Kimura, Y., Sumiyoshi, M., Kawahira, K., Sakanaka, M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) proliferation. Zhang, H.S., Wang, S.Q. J. Cell. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Caspase 3 specifically cleaves p21WAF1/CIP1 in the earlier stage of apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 human hepatoma cells. Park, J.A., Kim, K.W., Kim, S.I., Lee, S.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 inhibit the activation of AP-1 and protein kinase A pathway in lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Bae, E.A., Kim, E.J., Park, J.S., Kim, H.S., Ryu, J.H., Kim, D.H. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Differentiation and authentication of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and ginseng products by using HPLC/MS. Chan, T.W., But, P.P., Cheng, S.W., Kwok, I.M., Lau, F.W., Xu, H.X. Anal. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Nitric oxide-dependent modulation of the delayed rectifier K+ current and the L-type Ca2+ current by ginsenoside Re, an ingredient of Panax ginseng, in guinea-pig cardiomyocytes. Bai, C.X., Takahashi, K., Masumiya, H., Sawanobori, T., Furukawa, T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of rat samples for in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies of ginsenoside Rh2. Qian, T., Cai, Z., Wong, R.N., Jiang, Z.H. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Growth and ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of Panax ginseng using a novel bioreactor. Palazón, J., Mallol, A., Eibl, R., Lettenbauer, C., Cusidó, R.M., Piñol, M.T. Planta Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
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