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Chemical Compound Review

NSC89671     (1R,2R,3E,7S,11E,13R,15S)- 2,15-dihydroxy-7...

Synonyms: SureCN4345242, NSC56310, NSC107456, NSC244390, AC1NS04E, ...
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Disease relevance of Cyanein

  • To explore these interactions, we used a genetic approach and isolated BFA-resistant poliovirus variants [1].

High impact information on Cyanein

  • Hexahistidine-tagged-GBF1 exhibited BFA-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange activity that appears specific towards ARF5 at physiological Mg2+concentration [2].
  • Expression cloning from a cDNA library prepared from a mutant CHO cell line with Golgi-specific resistance to Brefeldin A (BFA) identified a novel 206-kD protein with a Sec7 domain termed GBF1 for Golgi BFA resistance factor 1 [2].
  • The appearance of BiP and FKBP65 in the immunoprecipitations could be enhanced by the addition of brefeldin A (BFA) and N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal (ALLN) to the culture medium for the final 4 h of labeling [3].
  • The use of BFA and other secretion-disrupting agents suggests that the association of tropoelastin with FKBP65 occurs in the ER [3].
  • Caffeine at 20 degrees C did not inhibit the BFA-induced retrograde movement of the Golgi membranes [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cyanein

  • Brefeldin A (BFA), which induces a major rearrangement of the cellular secretory apparatus, is a potent inhibitor of poliovirus RNA replication [1].

Biological context of Cyanein

  • In the presence of BFA, viruses carrying a single mutation in 2C or 3A exhibited an intermediate-growth phenotype, while the double mutant was fully resistant [1].
  • Our previous work shows that treatment with BFA or OA causes activation of the nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B. Pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor carbobenzyoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal inhibits stress-induced NF-kappa B activation and reverses BFA-induced drug resistance [5].
  • The measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) during the transport study showed that T-8 was less destructive on the cell tight junction than BFA [6].
  • T-8, as an enhancer of TfR-mediated transcytosis, is better than the previously reported BFA [6].

Anatomical context of Cyanein

  • Thus BFA affects the binding of coat proteins to membranes in the Golgi region (Golgi apparatus and TGN) but not plasma membranes [7].
  • BFA treatment did not release gamma-adaptin or clathrin from purified clathrin-coated vesicles, suggesting that their distribution to the cytoplasm after BFA treatment of cells was due to interference with their rebinding to TGN membranes after a normal cycle of disassembly [7].
  • GEP has now been purified extensively from rat spleen cytosol in a BFA-insensitive, approximately 55-kDa form [8].
  • Activation of several ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) regulates recruitment of coat proteins (COPs) on the Golgi complex and is generally assumed to be the target of brefeldin A (BFA) [9].
  • Whereas the cis, medial and trans Golgi membranes redistributed to the ER, the trans Golgi network (TGN) collapsed back to a compact juxtanuclear position similar to that seen with brefeldin A (BFA) treatment [10].

Associations of Cyanein with other chemical compounds

  • Also similar to BFA, CI-976 induced the formation of endosome tubules, but unlike BFA, these tubules did not fuse with TGN tubules [10].
  • Least effective had proved the metabolites curvularin and zearalenone which kept exhibiting ED50 at a concentration of 2 X 10(-4)M and at a concentration of 7.5 X 10(-5)M respectively, whereas the most effective cyanein and monorden gave rise to 50% inhibition of multiplication of HeLa cells at a thousandfold lower concentration than zearalenone [11].

Gene context of Cyanein

  • The new human BFA-insensitive GEP may function with ARF6 in specific endocytic processes [12].
  • In this regard, it differs from a recently reported BFA-sensitive ARF-GEP that contains a Sec7 domain [13].
  • Interestingly, the Sec7 domain activity is inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that inhibits some of the Arf-GEFs, indicating that this domain is a target for BFA [14].
  • Characterization of cDNAs recovered from the mutant and wild-type parental lines established that transcripts in these cells had identical sequence and, therefore, that GBF1 was naturally BFA resistant [2].
  • Partial purification yielded an approximately 60-kDa BFA-insensitive GEP that enhanced binding of ARF1 and ARF3 to Golgi membranes [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cyanein


  1. The poliovirus replication machinery can escape inhibition by an antiviral drug that targets a host cell protein. Crotty, S., Saleh, M.C., Gitlin, L., Beske, O., Andino, R. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. GBF1: A novel Golgi-associated BFA-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor that displays specificity for ADP-ribosylation factor 5. Claude, A., Zhao, B.P., Kuziemsky, C.E., Dahan, S., Berger, S.J., Yan, J.P., Armold, A.D., Sullivan, E.M., Melançon, P. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of tropoelastin as a ligand for the 65-kD FK506-binding protein, FKBP65, in the secretory pathway. Davis, E.C., Broekelmann, T.J., Ozawa, Y., Mecham, R.P. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of caffeine and reduced temperature (20 degrees C) on the organization of the pre-Golgi and the Golgi stack membranes. Jäntti, J., Kuismanen, E. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Reversal of physiological stress-induced resistance to topoisomerase II inhibitors using an inducible phosphorylation site-deficient mutant of I kappa B alpha. Brandes, L.M., Lin, Z.P., Patierno, S.R., Kennedy, K.A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Tyrphostin-8 enhances transferrin receptor-mediated transcytosis in Caco-2- cells and inreases hypoglycemic effect of orally administered insulin-transferrin conjugate in diabetic rats. Xia, C.Q., Shen, W.C. Pharm. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. 100-kD proteins of Golgi- and trans-Golgi network-associated coated vesicles have related but distinct membrane binding properties. Wong, D.H., Brodsky, F.M. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Purification and characterization of a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor from spleen cytosol. Tsai, S.C., Adamik, R., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Localization of large ADP-ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factors to different Golgi compartments: evidence for distinct functions in protein traffic. Zhao, X., Lasell, T.K., Melançon, P. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A unique lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) antagonist, CI-976, affects secretory and endocytic membrane trafficking pathways. Chambers, K., Judson, B., Brown, W.J. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Cytotoxic activity of macrocyclic metabolites from fungi. Horáková, K., Betina, V. Neoplasma (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. ARF-GEP(100), a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor 6. Someya, A., Sata, M., Takeda, K., Pacheco-Rodriguez, G., Ferrans, V.J., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytohesin-1, a cytosolic guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor. Meacci, E., Tsai, S.C., Adamik, R., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic interactions in yeast between Ypt GTPases and Arf guanine nucleotide exchangers. Jones, S., Jedd, G., Kahn, R.A., Franzusoff, A., Bartolini, F., Segev, N. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Human eosinophils secrete preformed, granule-stored interleukin-4 through distinct vesicular compartments. Melo, R.C., Spencer, L.A., Perez, S.A., Ghiran, I., Dvorak, A.M., Weller, P.F. Traffic (2005) [Pubmed]
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