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Gene Review

ALYREF  -  Aly/REF export factor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ALY, ALY/REF, Ally of AML-1 and LEF-1, BEF, REF, ...
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Disease relevance of THOC4

  • A nonproteolytic, nontoxigenic Clostridium botulinum strain identified by conventional and molecular techniques as type B-, E-, or F-like (BEF-like) was isolated from a human postsurgical wound [1].
  • Hip flexion weakness precluding ambulation occurred in 17% (P = 0.002) of BEF patients and orthostatic hypotension in 9% (P = 0.08) [2].
  • We have also evaluated the relationship between urinary neopterin and the clinical or biologic markers currently used to assess sarcoidosis: alveolar lymphocytosis in lavage fluid (ALY), 67-gallium scan semiquantitative index (67Ga), or serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) [3].

High impact information on THOC4

  • Similar to LEF-1, ALY can stimulate transcription in the context of the TCR alpha enhancer but apparently not when tethered to DNA through an heterologous DNA-binding domain [4].
  • We propose that ALY mediates context-dependent transcriptional activation by facilitating the functional collaboration of multiple proteins in the TCR alpha enhancer complex [4].
  • Overexpression of ALY stimulates the activity of the TCR alpha enhancer complex reconstituted in transfected nonlymphoid HeLa cells, whereas down-regulation of ALY by anti-sense oligonucleotides virtually eliminates TCR alpha enhancer activity in T cells [4].
  • BEF stimulates DNA binding by recognizing the unfolded leucine zipper and promoting the folding of bZIP monomers to dimers; the elevated concentration of the bZIP dimer then drives the DNA binding reaction [5].
  • The mRNA processing and export factor, ALY, mapped to some exons but predominantly localized to introns and did not coincide with RNA Pol II [6].

Anatomical context of THOC4

  • In contrast, a preferential augmentation of the size and number of marrow-derived T-cell colonies, as compared to peripheral T-cell colonies, was observed in the presence of BEF [7].
  • The firing patterns of eighth nerve fibers in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, were analyzed for responses to long duration tone bursts at best excitatory frequency ( BEF ) and at frequencies along the upper and lower boundaries of the excitatory tuning curve of each fiber [8].
  • The isometric plantar flexor torque during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured together with recording of electromyography (EMG) and ultrasonography from the soleus muscle before (BEF), after (AFT), 2 h (2H), 2 and 8 days (2D, 8D) after the SSC exercise (n=8) [9].

Associations of THOC4 with chemical compounds

  • A second group received ultra low-dose bupivacaine (0.04%), epinephrine (1.7 micrograms/mL), and fentanyl (1.7 micrograms/mL) (BEF, n = 77), a 15-mL bolus followed by an infusion at 15 mL/h. Adequate analgesia was rapidly obtained in 90.6% of patients in the FENT group and 92.2% of patients in the BEF group (P = 0.89) [2].
  • Calculations resulted in net cost savings of 21,301 BEF (528 Euro) per patient over a 24-month period for acamprosate compared to no pharmaceutical treatment, explained by fewer acute hospitalisations for detoxification and less institutionalised rehabilitation [10].

Other interactions of THOC4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of THOC4

  • The recovery of LV function after reperfusion improved with IPC in ALY but not in ALO [12].
  • The BEF mixture provided analgesia of longer duration (287 +/- 171 min versus 156 +/- 72 min, P = 0.0001) [2].
  • Placement of prosthesis is the treatment of choice in BEF [13].
  • However, costs dominate savings, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the screening and vaccination strategy amounting to 583,581 BEF per life-year saved [14].


  1. Osteosynthesis-associated bone infection caused by a nonproteolytic, nontoxigenic Clostridium botulinum-like strain. Carlier, J.P., K'ouas, G., Lozniewski, A., Sirveaux, F., Cailloux, P., Mory, F. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Epidural anesthesia for labor in an ambulatory patient. Breen, T.W., Shapiro, T., Glass, B., Foster-Payne, D., Oriol, N.E. Anesth. Analg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Urinary neopterin in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Relationship to clinical and biologic assessment of the disease. Lacronique, J., Auzeby, A., Valeyre, D., Traore, B.M., Barbosa, M.L., Soler, P., Choudat, D., Battesti, J.P., Touitou, Y., Marsac, J. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. ALY, a context-dependent coactivator of LEF-1 and AML-1, is required for TCRalpha enhancer function. Bruhn, L., Munnerlyn, A., Grosschedl, R. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. A human nuclear-localized chaperone that regulates dimerization, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity of bZIP proteins. Virbasius, C.M., Wagner, S., Green, M.R. Mol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Genomic localization of RNA binding proteins reveals links between pre-mRNA processing and transcription. Swinburne, I.A., Meyer, C.A., Liu, X.S., Silver, P.A., Brodsky, A.S. Genome Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of lymphoid colony growth by factors derived from human bone marrow. Bains, M.A., Mortari, F., Singhal, S.K. Exp. Hematol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Diversity of adaptation patterns in responses of eighth nerve fibers in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Megela, A.L. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Changes in the soleus muscle architecture after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise in humans. Ishikawa, M., Dousset, E., Avela, J., Kyröläinen, H., Kallio, J., Linnamo, V., Kuitunen, S., Nicol, C., Komi, P.V. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Economic evaluation of Campral (Acamprosate) compared to placebo in maintaining abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Annemans, L., Vanoverbeke, N., Tecco, J., D'Hooghe, D. European addiction research. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Autoantibodies to transcriptional regulation proteins DEK and ALY in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Wichmann, I., Garcia-Lozano, J.R., Respaldiza, N., Gonzalez-Escribano, M.F., Nuñez-Roldan, A. Hum. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Short-term caloric restriction improves ischemic tolerance independent of opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in both young and aged hearts. Shinmura, K., Tamaki, K., Bolli, R. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Esophageal prosthesis in palliation of malignant esophageal obstruction. Govil, A., Kumar, N. Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of prenatal screening and vaccination against hepatitis B virus--the case of Belgium. Tormans, G., Van Damme, P., Carrin, G., Clara, R., Eylenbosch, W. Social science & medicine (1982) (1993) [Pubmed]
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