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Chemical Compound Review

Campral     3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonic acid

Synonyms: Acamprosate, Acamprosato, AOTA, Acamprosatum, acamprostate, ...
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Disease relevance of Campral


Psychiatry related information on Campral

  • Pharmacologic therapies, such as naltrexone and acamprosate, have been effective in decreasing alcohol consumption when provided along with psychosocial counseling in patients with alcohol dependence [5].
  • Drawing upon data collected from 2 large samples of substance abuse treatment providers at multiple time points, this article examines the prevalence and correlates of the adoption of the currently available pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence: disulfiram, oral naltrexone, and acamprosate [6].
  • Thus, although acamprosate attenuated the expression of sensitized locomotor activity and DA release in the NAS, it did not have any consistent effect on either the intake of heroin during the maintenance phase or the relapse to heroin seeking in a drug-free state [7].
  • Effects of acamprosate on conditioned negative reinforcement may be the cause of this effect, but more work is required to establish the usefulness of this model in evaluation of anti-relapse drugs [8].
  • Acamprosate (calcium-acetyl homotaurinate) is a new compound used in the treatment of alcohol abuse [7].

High impact information on Campral

  • Acamprosate, the Ca(2+)-salt of N-acetyl-homotaurinate, interacts with NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission in various brain regions and reduces Ca2+ fluxes through voltage-operated channels [9].
  • Ethanol and amino acids in the central nervous system: assessment of the pharmacological actions of acamprosate [10].
  • Naltrexone administration significantly increased plasma acetylhomotaurine (i.e., acamprosate) levels, presumably by prolonging gastric emptying [11].
  • Dose-ranging kinetics and behavioral pharmacology of naltrexone and acamprosate, both alone and combined, in alcohol-dependent subjects [11].
  • A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction study of acamprosate and naltrexone [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Campral


Biological context of Campral


Anatomical context of Campral


Associations of Campral with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Campral

  • NMDA-receptor-mediated mechanisms may be crucial in addictive states, e.g. alcoholism, and provide a target for the novel anti-craving compound acamprosate [15].
  • In HEK-293 cells, acamprosate showed almost no effect on NR1-1a/NR2A or NR1-1a/NR2B recombinants (IC(50)s not calculated) [15].
  • RESULTS: CRH-stimulated cortisol secretion was significantly increased in both the acamprosate group and the group receiving no anti-relapse medication compared to a control group of 15 healthy subjects [21].
  • The geometric mean of the ratio final/baseline values for serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin was 0.802 (placebo) and 0.733 (acamprosate) (P = 0.059) [22].
  • The geometric mean of the ratio final/baseline values for serum gamma-glutamyltransferase was 0.496 (placebo) and 0.415 (acamprosate) (P = 0.024) which corroborated the greater abstinence reported by the acamprosate group [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Campral


  1. Possible association of erythema multiforme with acamprosate. Fortier-Beaulieu, M., Noblet, C., Cardot, F., Thomine, E., Moore, N., Hemet, J., Bourreille, J. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinical pharmacokinetics of acamprosate. Saivin, S., Hulot, T., Chabac, S., Potgieter, A., Durbin, P., Houin, G. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Predictors of acamprosate efficacy: results from a pooled analysis of seven European trials including 1485 alcohol-dependent patients. Verheul, R., Lehert, P., Geerlings, P.J., Koeter, M.W., van den Brink, W. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of oral acamprosate on abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: the role of patient motivation. Mason, B.J., Goodman, A.M., Chabac, S., Lehert, P. Journal of psychiatric research. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. New therapies for alcohol problems: application to primary care. Fiellin, D.A., Reid, M.C., O'Connor, P.G. Am. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Trends in the adoption of medications for alcohol dependence. Ducharme, L.J., Knudsen, H.K., Roman, P.M. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Acamprosate suppresses the expression of morphine-induced sensitization in rats but does not affect heroin self-administration or relapse induced by heroin or stress. Spanagel, R., Sillaber, I., Zieglgänsberger, W., Corrigall, W.A., Stewart, J., Shaham, Y. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Acamprosate, but not naltrexone, inhibits conditioned abstinence behaviour associated with repeated ethanol administration and exposure to a plus-maze. Cole, J.C., Littleton, J.M., Little, H.J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Anti-craving compounds for ethanol: new pharmacological tools to study addictive processes. Spanagel, R., Zieglgänsberger, W. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Ethanol and amino acids in the central nervous system: assessment of the pharmacological actions of acamprosate. Dahchour, A., De Witte, P. Prog. Neurobiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Dose-ranging kinetics and behavioral pharmacology of naltrexone and acamprosate, both alone and combined, in alcohol-dependent subjects. Johnson, B.A., O'Malley, S.S., Ciraulo, D.A., Roache, J.D., Chambers, R.A., Sarid-Segal, O., Couper, D. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction study of acamprosate and naltrexone. Mason, B.J., Goodman, A.M., Dixon, R.M., Hameed, M.H., Hulot, T., Wesnes, K., Hunter, J.A., Boyeson, M.G. Neuropsychopharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Acamprosate has no effect on NMDA-induced toxicity but reduces toxicity induced by spermidine or by changing the medium in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rat. Mayer, S., Harris, B., Gibson, D.A., Blanchard, J., Prendergast, M.A., Holley, R.C., Littleton, J. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Tinnitus treatment with acamprosate: double-blind study. Azevedo, A.A., Figueiredo, R.R. Revista brasileira de otorrinolaringologia (English ed.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The anti-craving compound acamprosate acts as a weak NMDA-receptor antagonist, but modulates NMDA-receptor subunit expression similar to memantine and MK-801. Rammes, G., Mahal, B., Putzke, J., Parsons, C., Spielmanns, P., Pestel, E., Spanagel, R., Zieglgänsberger, W., Schadrack, J. Neuropharmacology (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Mechanism of action of acamprosate. Part II. Ethanol dependence modifies effects of acamprosate on NMDA receptor binding in membranes from rat cerebral cortex. al Qatari, M., Bouchenafa, O., Littleton, J. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate) enhances the N-methyl-D-aspartate component of excitatory neurotransmission in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons in vitro. Madamba, S.G., Schweitzer, P., Zieglgänsberger, W., Siggins, G.R. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Biphasic effect of acamprosate on NMDA but not on GABAA receptors in spontaneous rhythmic activity from the isolated neonatal rat respiratory network. Pierrefiche, O., Daoust, M., Naassila, M. Neuropharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. New drug treatments for alcohol problems: a critical appraisal. Moncrieff, J., Drummond, D.C. Addiction (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Local acamprosate modulates dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens through NMDA receptors: an in vivo microdialysis study. Cano-Cebrián, M.J., Zornoza-Sabina, T., Guerri, C., Polache, A., Granero, L. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system regulation in recently detoxified alcoholics is not altered by one week of treatment with acamprosate. Zimmerman, U., Spring, K., Koller, G., Holsboer, F., Soyka, M. Pharmacopsychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Acamprosate during and after acute alcohol withdrawal: a double-blind placebo-controlled study in Spain. Gual, A., Lehert, P. Alcohol Alcohol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Comparison of acamprosate and placebo in long-term treatment of alcohol dependence. Whitworth, A.B., Fischer, F., Lesch, O.M., Nimmerrichter, A., Oberbauer, H., Platz, T., Potgieter, A., Walter, H., Fleischhacker, W.W. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Efficacy and safety of acamprosate in the treatment of detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. A 90-day placebo-controlled dose-finding study. Pelc, I., Verbanck, P., Le Bon, O., Gavrilovic, M., Lion, K., Lehert, P. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Current and future drug therapies for alcohol dependence. Rosenthal, R.N. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
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