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Chemical Compound Review

D-MONAPTERIN     2-amino-6-[(1R,2S)-1,2,3- trihydroxypropyl]...

Synonyms: L-MONAPTERIN, CHEBI:49751, HMDB00727, AC1L9A1D, MPU, ...
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Disease relevance of neopterin


Psychiatry related information on neopterin


High impact information on neopterin


Chemical compound and disease context of neopterin


Biological context of neopterin


Anatomical context of neopterin


Associations of neopterin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of neopterin

  • Increased and decreased neopterin serum levels in untreated and treated SAA patients, respectively, suggest modulation of endogenous lymphokine release subsequent to immunosuppression [31].
  • CONCLUSIONS: High doses of IL-10 upregulate the production of IFN-gamma and neopterin [32].
  • RESULTS: In patients with CACD, the highest dose of 20 microg/kg IL-10 caused a significant increase in serum neopterin on days +15 and +29 of therapy compared with pretreatment levels [32].
  • Compared with these 57 patients with CAD alone, 15 patients with PAD and CAD had higher median levels of SAA (17 versus 7 mg/mL, P=0.008), IL-6 (12 versus 4 pg/mL, P=0.002), neopterin (14 versus 11 mg/dL, P=0.006), and total TGF-beta (11834 versus 6417 ng/L, P=0.001) [33].
  • In distinction to monocytes/macrophages, neopterin production in DC was highly sensitive to IFN-alpha and IFN-beta [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of neopterin


  1. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with saquinavir, zidovudine, and zalcitabine. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Collier, A.C., Coombs, R.W., Schoenfeld, D.A., Bassett, R.L., Timpone, J., Baruch, A., Jones, M., Facey, K., Whitacre, C., McAuliffe, V.J., Friedman, H.M., Merigan, T.C., Reichman, R.C., Hooper, C., Corey, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Safety and efficacy of lamivudine-zidovudine combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients. A randomized controlled comparison with zidovudine monotherapy. Lamivudine European HIV Working Group. Katlama, C., Ingrand, D., Loveday, C., Clumeck, N., Mallolas, J., Staszewski, S., Johnson, M., Hill, A.M., Pearce, G., McDade, H. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Potential of urinary neopterin excretion in differentiating chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis from fatty liver. Prior, C., Fuchs, D., Hausen, A., Judmaier, G., Reibnegger, G., Werner, E.R., Vogel, W., Wachter, H. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Neopterin, immune activation, and psoriasis. de Rie, M.A., Hamerlinck, F., Bos, J.D. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Elevated central nervous system prostaglandins in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Griffin, D.E., Wesselingh, S.L., McArthur, J.C. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Brew, B.J., Bhalla, R.B., Paul, M., Gallardo, H., McArthur, J.C., Schwartz, M.K., Price, R.W. Ann. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. High blood monocyte counts and neopterin levels in children with autistic disorder. Sweeten, T.L., Posey, D.J., McDougle, C.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of tryptophan depletion and catecholamine depletion on immune parameters in patients with seasonal affective disorder in remission with light therapy. Stastny, J., Konstantinidis, A., Schwarz, M.J., Rosenthal, N.E., Vitouch, O., Kasper, S., Neumeister, A. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, biopterin, and neopterin in the brains of normal controls and patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Sawada, M., Hirata, Y., Arai, H., Iizuka, R., Nagatsu, T. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. The prognostic value of cellular and serologic markers in infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Fahey, J.L., Taylor, J.M., Detels, R., Hofmann, B., Melmed, R., Nishanian, P., Giorgi, J.V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of monocyte activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by leukapheresis therapy. Hahn, G., Stuhlmüller, B., Hain, N., Kalden, J.R., Pfizenmaier, K., Burmester, G.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. A direct comparison of biological response modulation and clinical side effects by interferon-beta ser, interferon-gamma, or the combination of interferons beta ser and gamma in humans. Schiller, J.H., Storer, B., Paulnock, D.M., Brown, R.R., Datta, S.P., Witt, P.L., Borden, E.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Urinary neopterin and biopterin levels in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. Abita, J.P., Cost, H., Milstien, S., Kaufman, S., Saimot, G. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of cancer patients with ex vivo anti-CD3-activated killer cells and interleukin-2. Curti, B.D., Longo, D.L., Ochoa, A.C., Conlon, K.C., Smith, J.W., Alvord, W.G., Creekmore, S.P., Fenton, R.G., Gause, B.L., Holmlund, J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. Witt, P.L., Spear, G.T., Lindstrom, M.J., Kessler, H.A., Borden, E.C., Phair, J., Landay, A.L. AIDS (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Structural Basis for the Aldolase and Epimerase Activities of Staphylococcus aureus Dihydroneopterin Aldolase. Blaszczyk, J., Li, Y., Gan, J., Yan, H., Ji, X. J. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Bile salt-induced apoptosis involves NADPH oxidase isoform activation. Reinehr, R., Becker, S., Keitel, V., Eberle, A., Grether-Beck, S., Häussinger, D. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Neopterin in clinical medicine. Fuchs, D., Hausen, A., Reibnegger, G., Werner, E.R., Wachter, H. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Neopterin as a marker for activated cell-mediated immunity: application in HIV infection. Fuchs, D., Hausen, A., Reibnegger, G., Werner, E.R., Dierich, M.P., Wachter, H. Immunol. Today (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Markers predicting progression of human immunodeficiency virus-related disease. Tsoukas, C.M., Bernard, N.F. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. DNA haplotype analyses of patients with hyperphenylalaninemia. Di Silvestre, D., Pandya, A., Koch, R., Groffen, J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Prediction of response to erythropoietin treatment in chronic anemia of cancer. Ludwig, H., Fritz, E., Leitgeb, C., Pecherstorfer, M., Samonigg, H., Schuster, J. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. GTP-cyclohydrolase I gene mutations in hereditary progressive amd dopa-responsive dystonia. Furukawa, Y., Shimadzu, M., Rajput, A.H., Shimizu, Y., Tagawa, T., Mori, H., Yokochi, M., Narabayashi, H., Hornykiewicz, O., Mizuno, Y., Kish, S.J. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Neopterin as a prognostic indicator in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Reibnegger, G.J., Bichler, A.H., Dapunt, O., Fuchs, D.N., Fuith, L.C., Hausen, A., Hetzel, H.M., Lutz, H., Werner, E.R., Wachter, H. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Neopterin formation and tryptophan degradation by a human myelomonocytic cell line (THP-1) upon cytokine treatment. Werner-Felmayer, G., Werner, E.R., Fuchs, D., Hausen, A., Reibnegger, G., Wachter, H. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Immune response-associated production of neopterin. Release from macrophages primarily under control of interferon-gamma. Huber, C., Batchelor, J.R., Fuchs, D., Hausen, A., Lang, A., Niederwieser, D., Reibnegger, G., Swetly, P., Troppmair, J., Wachter, H. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Altered tryptophan and neopterin metabolism in cancer patients treated with recombinant interleukin 2. Brown, R.R., Lee, C.M., Kohler, P.C., Hank, J.A., Storer, B.E., Sondel, P.M. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Biochemical and fluorodopa positron emission tomographic findings in an asymptomatic carrier of the gene for dopa-responsive dystonia. Takahashi, H., Levine, R.A., Galloway, M.P., Snow, B.J., Calne, D.B., Nygaard, T.G. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Quinolinic acid and kynurenine pathway metabolism in inflammatory and non-inflammatory neurological disease. Heyes, M.P., Saito, K., Crowley, J.S., Davis, L.E., Demitrack, M.A., Der, M., Dilling, L.A., Elia, J., Kruesi, M.J., Lackner, A. Brain (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. A human 15-kDa IFN-induced protein induces the secretion of IFN-gamma. Recht, M., Borden, E.C., Knight, E. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Further evidence for lymphokine overproduction in severe aplastic anemia. Hinterberger, W., Adolf, G., Aichinger, G., Dudczak, R., Geissler, K., Höcker, P., Huber, C., Kalhs, P., Knapp, W., Köller, U. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Treatment of Crohn's disease with recombinant human interleukin 10 induces the proinflammatory cytokine interferon gamma. Tilg, H., van Montfrans, C., van den Ende, A., Kaser, A., van Deventer, S.J., Schreiber, S., Gregor, M., Ludwiczek, O., Rutgeerts, P., Gasche, C., Koningsberger, J.C., Abreu, L., Kuhn, I., Cohard, M., LeBeaut, A., Grint, P., Weiss, G. Gut (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Systemic inflammatory parameters in patients with atherosclerosis of the coronary and peripheral arteries. Erren, M., Reinecke, H., Junker, R., Fobker, M., Schulte, H., Schurek, J.O., Kropf, J., Kerber, S., Breithardt, G., Assmann, G., Cullen, P. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells release neopterin. Wirleitner, B., Reider, D., Ebner, S., Böck, G., Widner, B., Jaeger, M., Schennach, H., Romani, N., Fuchs, D. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Modulation of monocyte functions by muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine in a phase II study in patients with metastatic melanoma. Liebes, L., Walsh, C.M., Chachoua, A., Oratz, R., Richards, D., Hochster, H., Peace, D., Marino, D., Alba, S., Le Sher, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Differential diagnosis between non-A, non-B hepatitis and fatty liver by measurement of urinary neopterin. Reibnegger, G., Judmaier, G., Wachter, H. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. Phase I study of subcutaneously administered interleukin-2 in combination with interferon alfa-2a in patients with advanced cancer. Gause, B.L., Sznol, M., Kopp, W.C., Janik, J.E., Smith, J.W., Steis, R.G., Urba, W.J., Sharfman, W., Fenton, R.G., Creekmore, S.P., Holmlund, J., Conlon, K.C., VanderMolen, L.A., Longo, D.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Increased neopterin in patients with chronic and acute coronary syndromes. Schumacher, M., Halwachs, G., Tatzber, F., Fruhwald, F.M., Zweiker, R., Watzinger, N., Eber, B., Wilders-Truschnig, M., Esterbauer, H., Klein, W. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Coronary sinus sampling of cytokines after heart transplantation: evidence for macrophage activation and interleukin-4 production within the graft. Fyfe, A., Daly, P., Galligan, L., Pirc, L., Feindel, C., Cardella, C. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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