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Gene Review

SLC26A1  -  solute carrier family 26 (anion exchanger)...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: EDM4, SAT-1, SAT1, Solute carrier family 26 member 1, Sulfate anion transporter 1
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Disease relevance of SLC26A1

  • Between 1989 and 1992, 7970 wild ungulates, comprising 14 different species, were tested for antibodies to types SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus [1].
  • The different ganglioside distribution seems to correlate with the tumour size; (3), Sarcoma Galliera-strain cells SGS/3A and normal syngenic murine fibroblasts FG: transformed cells exhibit a lower activity of sialyltransferases (SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-4) compared to normal fibroblasts, suggesting a possible correlation with the ganglioside pattern [2].

High impact information on SLC26A1

  • A chimera that was composed of the amino terminal fragment of SLC26A7 and the carboxyl terminal fragment of SLC26A1, and a C-terminal-truncated SLC26A7 were retained in the cytoplasm in hypertonicity [3].
  • The sulfate-anion antiporter 1 (SAT-1; hsat-1) may also contribute to organic anion transport at the basolateral membrane [4].
  • Progressive increases in the activities of SAT-1 and SAT-3 were detected in lymphocytes stimulated with PHA, whereas no increase was observed in control lymphocytes incubated in culture medium alone [5].
  • Although the sulfate/anion transporter (sat-1; SLC26A1) was isolated from a rat liver cDNA library by expression cloning, localization of sat-1 within the liver and its contribution to the transport of sulfate and organo sulfates have remained unresolved [6].
  • To study this further, NaSi-1 (SLC13A1) and Sat-1 (SLC26A1) gene structures were determined and recent studies have characterized their respective gene promoters [7].

Biological context of SLC26A1

  • We report the expansion of the SLC26 family with five new members in chromosomes 3, 6, 8, 12, and 17 and mapping of SLC26A1 to 4p16 [8].
  • Using SAT1 5' flanking region truncations, the first 135 bp was shown to be sufficient for basal promoter activity [9].
  • The SAT1 gene is comprised of four exons stretching 6 kb in length, with an alternative splice site formed from an optional exon [9].
  • The sat1 gene, which confers resistance to streptothricin, an antimicrobial that has never been approved for use in the United States, was identified in integrons from three (7%) of the isolates [10].
  • Twelve different values of control flow (Qctr) were measured (Qmsr) using 3 different cardiac output computers (Abbott Critical Care System, Oximetrix 3 SvO2/CO Computer, Baxter Oximeter/Cardiac Output Computer SAT-1; American Edwards Laboratories, 9520 A Cardiac Output Computer) [11].

Anatomical context of SLC26A1

  • SAT1 5' flanking region led to promoter activity in renal OK and LLC-PK1 cells [9].
  • Intact lymphocytes were needed for the lectin-stimulated increase of sialyltransferase activities because neither concanavalin A nor phytohemagglutinin added to the broken cell preparation modulated SAT-1 activity [5].
  • DESIGN: Values of SvO2 recorded by three pulmonary artery catheters for continuous monitoring, SAT1, SAT2 and Oximetrix3 (OX3), were compared in a prospective manner to those measured on blood samples by a Co-Oximeter, using the statistical analysis of Bland and Altman [12].

Associations of SLC26A1 with chemical compounds

  • One was the classic type (2158 bp) and carried the three conserved resistance gene cassettes of the class 2 integron, dfrA1, sat1 and aadA1, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, streptothricin and streptomycin/spectinomycin, respectively [13].
  • After incubation of HepG2 cells in glyoxylate, both sat-1 protein-expression and sulfate uptake into the cells increased. mRNA-expression of other transporters in HepG2 cells was not affected by glyoxylate treatment [14].


  1. The role of wild animals, other than buffalo, in the current epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Zimbabwe. Anderson, E.C., Foggin, C., Atkinson, M., Sorensen, K.J., Madekurozva, R.L., Nqindi, J. Epidemiol. Infect. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Glycosphingolipid expression in solid tumours and transformed cell lines. Berra, B., Colombo, I., Monteggia, E., Montorfano, G., Moretti, S., Rapelli, S., Sottocornola, E. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Chloride/bicarbonate exchanger SLC26A7 is localized in endosomes in medullary collecting duct cells and is targeted to the basolateral membrane in hypertonicity and potassium depletion. Xu, J., Worrell, R.T., Li, H.C., Barone, S.L., Petrovic, S., Amlal, H., Soleimani, M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Human renal organic anion transporters: characteristics and contributions to drug and drug metabolite excretion. Robertson, E.E., Rankin, G.O. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of lectin activation on sialyltransferase activities in human lymphocytes. Basu, S.K., Whisler, R.L., Yates, A.J. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Localization of the sulfate/anion exchanger in the rat liver. Quondamatteo, F., Krick, W., Hagos, Y., Krüger, M.H., Neubauer-Saile, K., Herken, R., Ramadori, G., Burckhardt, G., Burckhardt, B.C. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. NaSi-1 and Sat-1: structure, function and transcriptional regulation of two genes encoding renal proximal tubular sulfate transporters. Lee, A., Dawson, P.A., Markovich, D. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Mapping of five new putative anion transporter genes in human and characterization of SLC26A6, a candidate gene for pancreatic anion exchanger. Lohi, H., Kujala, M., Kerkelä, E., Saarialho-Kere, U., Kestilä, M., Kere, J. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of the human sulfate anion transporter (hsat-1) protein and gene (SAT1; SLC26A1). Regeer, R.R., Lee, A., Markovich, D. DNA Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli recovered from humans and food animals. Singh, R., Schroeder, C.M., Meng, J., White, D.G., McDermott, P.F., Wagner, D.D., Yang, H., Simjee, S., Debroy, C., Walker, R.D., Zhao, S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Cardiac output measurement by the thermodilution method: an in vitro test of accuracy of three commercially available automatic cardiac output computers. Rubini, A., Del Monte, D., Catena, V., Attar, I., Cesaro, M., Soranzo, D., Rattazzi, G., Alati, G.L. Intensive care medicine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Accuracy assessment for three fiberoptic pulmonary artery catheters for SvO2 monitoring. Armaganidis, A., Dhainaut, J.F., Billard, J.L., Klouche, K., Mira, J.P., Brunet, F., Dinh-Xuan, A.T., Dall'Ava-Santucci, J. Intensive care medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic characterization of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. from Japan. Ahmed, A.M., Furuta, K., Shimomura, K., Kasama, Y., Shimamoto, T. J. Med. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Glyoxylate is a substrate of the sulfate-oxalate exchanger, sat-1, and increases its expression in HepG2 cells. Schnedler, N., Burckhardt, G., Burckhardt, B.C. J. Hepatol. (2011) [Pubmed]
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